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虚拟语气在条件状语从句中的应用
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2008-12-13 | 字体: |

编辑小语:本版将为大家讲解虚拟条件句的一些特殊用法,并提供了相应的练习和测试题。
Grammar in use 语法运用
虚拟语气(二)
                         ——虚拟条件句的一些特殊用法
【考点导航】
1. —My cat’s really fat.                                  (2007浙江)
   —You ______ have given her so much food.
A. wouldn’t    B .couldn’t      C. shouldn’t    D. mustn’t
2.—How’s your tour around the North Lake? Is it beautiful?    (2007全国卷I)
   —It _____ be, but it is now heavily polluted.
A. will    B. would       C. should   D. must
3. I told your friend how to get to the hotel, but perhaps I _____ have driven her there.                                                   (2007陕西)
A. could        B. must       C. might           D. should
【答案与解析】
1.C。shouldn’t have done表示“本来不应该做某事而实际做了”。
2.C。根据句意,“本来这个湖应该是很漂亮的,但是现在被严重污染了”可知选C。should 在这里表示“本来应该……,暗含着实际上不……”之意。
3.D。should have done表示“本应该做某事而实际上未做”,本句意为:“我告诉你朋友该怎么到达旅馆了,但是也许我应该开车把她送到那儿去”。

【重点归纳】
1. 错综时间条件句:
有时在非真实条件句中,主句谓语动词所表示的动作和条件从句中谓语动词所表示的动作并不同时发生,这时主句和从句的谓语动词要根据各自所指的不同时间选用适当的虚拟语气形式。如:
Had I taken my umbrella with me when I came out this morning, I should not be wet now.
如果我今天早上出来的时候带着伞的话,现在就不会淋湿了。(从句说的是过去的事情,而主句说的是现在的事情)
If you had followed the doctor’s advice, you would be all right now.
如果你(那时)听从我的建议的话,现在就不会有事了。(从句说的是过去的事情,而主句说的是现在的事情)
If I hadn’t finished my composition by now, I would be working on it tomorrow.
如果到现在为止我还没有完成作文的话,我明天还要接着写。(从句说的是现在的事情,而主句说的是将来的事情)
2.含蓄虚拟条件句:
有时一个假设的情况并不用条件从句表示,而用其它方式来表示,这样的句子叫含蓄条件句。主要有以下几种情况。
1) 用with, without,but for等介词短语来替代条件从句, 它们都可以转换成由if引导的虚拟条件句。如:
We might have died without your help. =We might have died if you hadn’t helped us.
如果(那时)没有你们的帮助,我们可能已经死了。
Without the sun, nothing would grow. = If there was no the sun, nothing would grow.
没有太阳,万物都不能生长。
2) 用or, otherwise, but that, suppose/ supposing (that), provided / providing (that) 等引导的虚拟语气。如:
You didn’t come yesterday, or you would have seen him.
你昨天没有来,否则的话,你就已经看到他了。
I was very busy last week, otherwise I would have come to see you.
我上周很忙,否则的话,我就来看你了。
Supposing I was still a little child, I would study hard from now on.
假如我还是一个小孩子的话,我将从现在开始努力学习。
3) 通过上下文来表示虚拟:这种情况下,需要加以分析。
I would have given you more money, but I was so poor then.
我(那时如果有钱的话)就可以给你更多的钱了,但是我当时太穷了。
I would have called you, but I forgot your telephone number.
我本来可以给你打电话,但是我(那时)忘了你的电话号码。
Having known the fact in time, we couldn’t have said that. = If we had known the fact in time, we couldn’t have said that.
如果我们(那时)及时知道事实的话,就不会说那件事了。
Any man in his position would have done that.
处于他那个位置的任何人都会那样做的。
4)由should +动词原形或者should/could/might have +过去分词构成的虚拟语气。
种情况下,虚拟条件句经常省略,而只剩下主句结构,如:
I should have told you that, but I was afraid that you couldn’t accept the fact.
我本应该告诉你那件事,但我担心你不能接受这个事实。
Tom, you are so lazy! This work should have been finished hours ago.
汤姆,你太懒了!这个工作本应该几个小时之前完成。
3. 在if it were/had been not for …句型中的虚拟语气
If it were not for…,表示对现在事实的假设;If it had not been for…,表示对过去事实的假设。
If it were not for the Internet, everything would be very difficult.
要不是互联网,一切都会变得很难。
Had it not been for your overcoat, I would have died.
要不是你那件大衣,我就被冻死了。

Grammar work语法专练
选择最佳答案。
1. _________ the thick forest, we would often have to suffer from a sandstorm.
A. If it is not for  B. If it were not for  C Is it not for     D. Was it not for
2. _________ your offer of rice and vegetables, we would have gone hungry.
A. If it hasn’t been for     B. With
C. Has it not been for     D. Had it not been for
3. __________ your timely and correct guidance, I couldn’t have solved the problem so smoothly.
A. Had it not been for    B. Were it not for
C. If it has not been for    D. If it is not for
4. Jane would have gone to Washington ________ to get a plane ticket.
A. was she able      B. if she had been able   C. would she be able  D. if she is able
5. ________ for her encouragement, I would not have paid for that good-for-nothing huge vase.
A. Were it not  B. If it is not    C. Had it not been  D. If they were not
6. If I ________ a lot of money like you, I ________ buy that large company.
A. had, would buy  B. have, would
C. had, would have bought D. have had, would have bought
7.If she ________ my English teacher, I ________ much from her.
A. was, can learn   B .is, could learn   C. were, could learn  D. had been, could learn
8. If I ________ out to work last year, I ________ much more money.
A. had gone, would make   B. had gone, would have made
C. went, would make  D. went, would have made
9.I supported him in time, otherwise he ______off the bike.
A. might fall    B. would fall    C. should have fallen  D. would have fallen
10. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I _____ in love with Mary in my hometown.
A. wouldn’t have fallen     B. had not fallen  C. should fall  D. were to fall
11. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night ______.
A. would be freezing cold   B. will be freezing coldly 
C. would be frozen cold    D. can freeze coldly
12.— Why don’t you buy the necklace since you like it so much?
  — I ______, but I don’t have the money.
A. would    B. will      C. should    D. may
13. — Finally I got to my grandmother’s home on foot.
   — Really? You ______ a ride there.
A. must have taken      B. could have taken  
C. shouldn’t have taken   D. couldn’t have taken
14. If I had worked harder at school, I ______ in a comfortable office now.
A. would sit        B. would have sat    C. would be sitting  D. were sitting
15. My father told me how to get here but perhaps he _____ me a map.
A. had to give         B. ought to give      C. must have given  D. should have given

Grammar quiz语法小测
I. 请将下列句子翻译成英语。
1.  要不是你帮忙的话,我会失败的。
                                                                         .
2.  如果不是两次考大学都失败的话,他也不会一声不吭地离家出走。
                                                                         .
3.  如果不是你及时的支持,我就会输掉这次大选。
                                                                         .
4.  没有这本杂志,我们打发时光就很难。
                                                                         .
II. 根据上下文的意思,完成句子。
1. If it ______(要不是)your mobile phone, I couldn’t have got in touch with her.
2. I was really very busy that day, otherwise, I _______(就去参加舞会了).
3. _________( 要不是天气好的话), I couldn’t go climbing that day.
4. Providing that I had finished the report two days before, I ________( 就不会被开除了) now.

 
第16期B3版Keys:
语法专练
1-5 BDABC  6-10 ACBDB  11-15 AABCD
语法小测
I. (One possible version)
1. But for your help, I would have failed.
2. Not having failed in the college entrance examination twice, he wouldn’t have left home without saying a word.
3. If it had not been for your timely support, I would have failed in the election.
4. Were it not for this magazine, it would be difficult for us to kill the time.
II. (One possible version)
1. hadn’t been for  2. would have gone to the party  3. But for the fine weather  4. wouldn’t be fired

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