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高三英语复习与训练—冠词和数词
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-3-16 | 字体: |

高三英语复习与训练——冠词和数词

2. 冠词和数词
2.1 不定冠词的用法
  冠词本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词,另一种是不定冠词,还有一种是零冠词。
  不定冠词a (an)与数词one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e],而an则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。
 1) 表示"一个",意为one;指某人或某物,意为a certain。例如:
    A Mr. Ling is waiting for you. 有位姓凌的先生在等你。
 2) 代表一类人或物。例如:
    A knife is a tool for cutting with. 刀是切割的工具。
    Mr. Smith is an engineer. 史密斯先生是工程师。
 3) 组成词组或成语,如a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try /keep an eye on / all of a sudden等。
 
2.2 定冠词的用法
   定冠词the与指示代词this,that同源,有"那(这)个"的意思,但意义较弱,可以和一个名词连用,来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。
 1)特指双方都明白的人或物。例如:
   Take the medicine. 把药吃了。
 2)上文提到过的人或事。例如:
   He bought a house. I've been to the house. 他买了幢房子。我去过那幢房子。
 3)指世上独一物二的事物,如the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth等。
 4)与单数名词连用表示一类事物,如the dollar 美元; the fox 狐狸;或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。
 5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only,very,same等前面。例如:
   Where do you live? I live on the second floor.  你住在哪?我住在二层。
   That's the very thing I've been looking for.  那正是我要找的东西。
 6)与复数名词连用,指整个群体。例如:
    They are the teachers of this school.(指全体教师)
    They are teachers of this school.  (指部分教师)
 7)表示所有,相当于物主代词,用在表示身体部位的名词前。例如:
   She caught me by the arm.. 她抓住了我的手臂。
 8)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前。例如:
    the People's Republic of China  中华人民共和国
    the United States  美国
 9)用在表示乐器的名词之前。例如: 
She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。
 10) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人。例如:
    the Greens  格林一家人 (或格林夫妇)
 11) 用在惯用语中。例如:
in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after tomorrow 
the day before yesterday, the next morning, 
in the sky (water,field,country) 
in the dark, in the rain, in the distance, 
in the middle (of), in the end,
on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre
 
2.3 零冠词的用法
  1) 国名,人名前通常不用定冠词:England,Mary。
 2)泛指的复数名词,表示一类人或事物时,可不用定冠词。例如:
   They are teachers. 他们是教师。
 3)抽象名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词。例如:
   Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。
 4)物质名词表示一般概念时,通常不加冠词,当表示特定的意思时,需要加定冠词。例如:
   Man cannot live without water. 离开水人就无法生存。
 5)在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词。例如:
    We go to school from Monday to Friday.  我们从星期一到星期五都上课。
 6)在称呼或表示官衔,职位的名词前不加冠词。例如:
    The guards took the American to General Lee. 士兵们把这个美国人送到李将军那里。
 7)在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词,如have breakfast,play chess。
 8)当两个或两个以上名词并用时,常省去冠词。例如:
   I can't write without pen or pencil. 没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。
 9)当by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词,如by bus,by train。
 10)有些个体名词不用冠词,如school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed,table,class,town,church,court 等个体名词,直接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义。例如:
    go to hospital    去医院看病
    go to the hospital  去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的)
 11)不用冠词的序数词;
   a. 序数词前有物主代词时。
   b. 序数词作副词。例如:He came first in the race. 他跑步得了第一。
   c. 在固定词组中,如at(the)first, first of all, from first to last等。
 
2.4 冠词与形容词+名词结构
  1) 两个形容词都有冠词,表示两个不同的人或物。例如:
   He raises a black and a white cat. 他养了一只黑猫和一只白猫。
    The black and the white cats are hers. 这只黑猫和白猫都是他的。
 2) 如后一个形容词无冠词,则指一人或一物。例如:
He raises a black and white cat. 他养了一只花猫。
 
2.5 冠词位置
1) 不定冠词位置
 不定冠词常位于名词或名词修饰语前。注意: 
 a. 位于such,what,many,half等形容词之后。例如:
   I have never seen such an animal. 我从来没见过这样的动物。
   Many a man is fit for the job. 许多人适合这岗位。
 b. 当名词前的形容词被副词as, so, too, how, however, enough修饰时,不定冠词应放在形容词之后。例如:
   It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. 我从未这么高兴过。
   So short a time  如此短的时间
   Too long a distance 距离太远了
 c. quite,rather与单数名词连用,冠词放在其后。但当rather,quite 前仍有形容词,不定冠词放其前后均可,如:rather a cold day/a rather cold day。
 d. 在as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,当表语为形容词修饰的名词时,不定冠词放形容词后。例如:Brave a man though he is,he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢,可见到蛇还是发抖。
2) 定冠词位置
   定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前,但放在all, both,double,half,twice,three times等词之后,名词之前。例如:All the students in the class went out. 班里的所有学生都出去了。
 
2.6 数词
   表示数目多少或顺序多少的词叫数词,数词分为基数词和序数词。表示数目多少的数词叫基数词;表示顺序的数词叫序数词。
 一、基数词
  1)基数词一般可写成如345或three hundred and forty-five。
  2)基数词一般是单数形式,但遇下列情况,常用复数:
   a. 与of 短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连用,如scores of people 指许多人;
   b. 在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里。例如:
They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到了。
   c. 表示"几十岁"。
   d. 表示"年代",用 in +the +数词复数。
   e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里,如Three fives is(are)fifteen。
 二、序数词
   序数词的缩写形式如first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st等。 
 三、 数词的用法
  1)倍数表示法
   a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as。例如
    I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。
   b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length…) of…。例如:
    The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的49倍。
   c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than…。例如:
     The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year. 今年比去年粮食产量增加8%。
   d. 还可以用by+倍数,表示增加多少倍。例如:
   The production of grain has been increased by four times this year. 今年粮食产量增加了4倍。
  2)分数表示法的构成:基数词代表分子,序数词代表分母。分子大于1时,分子的序数词用单数,分母序数词用复数。例如:
     1/3   one-third; 3/37    three and three-sevenths.
 
2.7 冠词练习
1.When Linda was a child, her mother always let her have ______ bed.
a. the breakfast in    b. the breakfast in the     c. breakfast in    d. breakfast in the
2.He has promised to give up ______ hundreds of times.
a. a tobacco    b. tobacco    c. the tobacco    d. tobaccos
3.______ usually go to church every Sunday.
a. The Brown    b. A Brown    c. Browns    d. The Browns
4.The train is running fifty miles ______.
a. an hour    b. one hour    c. the hour    d. a hour
5.He can play almost every kind of music instrument but he is good ______.
a. at the flute     b. at flute     c. at a flute     d. at that flute
6.The investigators found that more should be done for ______ in India.
a. those poor    b. a poor    c. poor    d. the poor
7.You look in high spirit. You must have ______ during your holiday.
a. wonderful time   b.  a wonderful time   c. the wonderful time   d. some wonderful time
8.The city assigned a policeman to the school crossing because ______ traffic there was so heavy.
a a     b. an    c. the    d. one
9.A new teacher was sent to the village in place of ______ one who had retired.
a. a       b. the    c. an    d. its
10.Virtue and vice are before you;______ leads you to happiness,______ to misery.
a. the former…latter        b. a former…a latter
c. the former…the latter   d. former…latter
11.The children in the kinder-garden soon took ______ to their teachers.
a. quite fancy  b. a quite fancy    c. quite a fancy    d. the quite fancy
12.______ tend to bemoan the lack of character in the young generation.
a. The old    b. Old    c. Elderly    d. Older
13.A man suffering from a chock should be given ______.
a. hot sweet tea   b. a hot sweet tea  c. the hot sweet tea   d. one hot sweet tea
14.He answered my questions with ______ not to be expected of an ordinary schoolboy.
a. his accuracy   b. a accuracy    c. the accuracy    d. an accuracy
15.If you go by train you can have quite ______ comfortable journey.
a. the    b. one   c. a   d. that
16.We’re going to ______ with ______ today, aren’t we?
a. the tea…the Smiths   b. tea…those Smiths    c. a tea…a Smith   d. tea…the Smiths
17.I want an assistant with ______ knowledge of French and ______ experience of office routine.
a. the…the    b. a…the   c. a…an   d. the…an
18.Ann’s habit of riding a motorcycle up and down the road early in the morning annoyed the neighbors and ______ they took her to the court.
a. in the end    b. at the end    c. in an end    d. in end
19.It is reported that today ______ president will have lunch with ______ President Omon.
a. the…the    b. a…a    c. the…/    d. /…/
20.Tianan Men Square and ______ Great Wall are tow of the places everyone should see in ______ People’s Republic of China.
a. the…the   b. /…/   c. the…/    d. /…the
21.It has long been known that there is an electric field ______.
a. inside the earth   b. inside earth   c. inside an earth   d. on earth
22.______ much harder work, the volunteers were able to place the raging forest fire______.
a. By the means of…under the control     b. By means of…under control
c.By means of…under a control          d. By a means of…under control
23.No sooner had the man departed than the tree began dropping coffee beans ______.
a. by the thousand    b. by a thousand    c. by thousands    d. by thousand
24.He expressed ______ of their having ever been married.
a. the doubt    b. a doubt    c. doubt    d. an doubt
25.He saw through the little boy’s tricks ______.
a. at glance   b. at the glance    c. at some glance   d. at a glance
26.Their victory is ______,for they’ve lost too many men.
a.out of question   b. out of the question   c. out question   d. of question
27.Many a girl wants to become ______.
a. some secretary    b. a secretary    c. secretary    d. secretaries
28.He grabbed me ______ and pulled me onto the bus.
a. a arm   b. an arm   c. the arm   d. by the arm
29.I’ll come in ______ minute; in fact I’ll come ______ moment I’m through.
a./…the     b. a…the    c. the…a    d. /…/
30.This is one of ______ interesting books on your subject.
a.the most   b. the most of the    c. most   d. most of the
31.He enjoys life ______ the “Queen Anne”.
a. on a board   b . on board   c. in the board    d. board
32.He lost his fob and ______ his wife left him.
a. on that top   b. on top of that   c. on a top of that   d. on the top
33.Most of the representatives think that ______ the meeting was very successful.
a. on whole of   b. on a whole   c. on the whole   d. on the whole that
34.Under no circumstances will there be wage control while I am ______ of the government.
a.the head   b. a head   c. head   d. that head
35.Like his sister, David needed ______ from some generous person in order to get home.
a. a ride   b. some ride   c. ride   d. the ride
36.The brain’s left hemisphere controls logic and language, while ______controls intuitive talents and musical ability.
a. the right    b. a right   c. that right    d. right one
37.______ is setting up a research team to see how children react to video games.
a. The Japan’s Health Ministry      b. Japan’s health Ministry
b. A Japan’s health Ministry        d. Japan health Ministry
38.Unlike Americans, who seem to prefer coffee,______ a great deal of tea.
a. English drink    b. The English drink   c. English man drink   d. the English drinks
39.Hundreds of people are ______ now, so there are about 50 people trying for the same position.
a.out of the work   b. out work   c. out of work   d. out of a work

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