Loading... Please wait...
◇您现在的位置: 嘉兴英语网 >> 高中英语 >> 高中语法 >> 正文:十、高中语法学习 虚拟语气
十、高中语法学习 虚拟语气
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:星沙英语 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2007-4-10 | 字体: |
在英文句子中,谓语动词的语气是用来表示说话人对所讲内容的态度、看法以及心情等。

英文句子中谓语动词的语气有三种:
A)直陈语气(The Indicative Mood)直陈语气用于直截了当地陈述事实、描述状态:
He has published quite a number of essays this year .他今年已发表了好几篇论文。
B) 祁使语气(The Imperative Mood)
祁使语气用于提出请求、命令、建议或是劝告等:
Wait outside until you are asked . 请在外面等候,请你进再进去。
Let's just take a break, shall we ? 我们休息一会儿,好吗?
C) 虚拟语气(The Subjunctive Mood)
虚拟语气用于表示主观愿望和假设的虚拟情况。虚拟语气不太顾及事实的存在,它表现出说话人的主观因素比较多。所以说话人所讲的内容往往是与事实相反的;或是其实现的可能性微乎其微,甚至于没有实现的可能性。当然,有时为了使说话的语气客气、缓和、委婉,也使用虚拟语气。例如:
I wish you were more careful .但愿你更细心一些。
If I had more money, I would buy a bigger apartment.
我要是有再多一点钱,我就买一套更大一些房子。
Would you mind shutting the door ? 劳驾您把门关上。

用于非真实条件句中的虚拟语气

条件句分为两种:真实条件句和非真实条件句。
与现在事实相违背
If I had time, I would certainly join you in the tennis match. (事实是:我没有时间)我要是有时间肯定和你一起打这场网球比赛。
If I were you, I would put her suggestion into account.(事实是:我并不是你)我要是你,我会考虑她的建议的。

与过去事实相违背
If I hadn't been caught by something, I would have come to your party yesterday.(事实是:我昨天被某些事缠住了)
我昨天要不是被些事缠住了,我就会去参加你们的聚会了。
If he had taken my advice, he might not have made such a bad mistake.
(事实是:他没有听我的建议)要是他听进了我的劝告就不会犯这么严重的错误了。
与未来事实相违背
If I should have a chance to try it, I would do it in another way.
(假设的情况不大可能发生)要是我有机会试一试,我会用另一种方法做的。
Even if they were to fail, they wouldn't lose courage.
(说话人不希望假设的情况发生)即使他们万一失败,他们也不会泄气。

熟悉并掌握好下面的基本句式

  条件从句 主句 与现在事实相违背 过去式(动词是BE用were) Should / would + 动词原形 与过去事实相违背 had + 过去分词 would / should + have +过去分词 与未来事实相违背 1) should + 动词原形
2) were + 动词不定式
3) 过去式(动词是BE也可以用were) would / Should + 动词原形

1. 省略If的几种情况

1)当条件状语从句的谓语部分含有had、should、或were时,就将这样的词had、should、或were搬到句首把句子写成倒装句而将连词if省略。例如:
If you were the manager here, what would you do?
Were you the manager here, what would you do? 你若是这里的经理,你会怎么办?
If he should act like that again, he would be fired immediately.
Should he act like that again, he would be fired immediately. 要是他再那样做,他会被立即解雇的。

2) 由某些介词短语取代了if引导的条件状语从句。例如:
Without air, there would be no life on the earth. 要是没有空气,地球上就不会有生命了。
But for your help, the little boy would have been drowned. 要是没有你们的帮助,那个小男孩早就淹死了。
We could have done the work better in that case. 要是那样的话,我们本可以把工作干得更好一些的。

3) 由上下文的交代而省略了if引导的条件状语从句。在这种情况下,上下文事实上就是一个表示违背事实的条件句。上下文如果是由一个句子介绍的,那么这个取代了if条件状语从句的句子应该用直陈语气;而起主句作用的句子则要用虚拟语气。例如:
He would have come to see you earlier but he just came back from his business trip .(本句中的上下文是:but he just came back from his business trip,表示:要是他在家没出差的话)他本来早就来看你了,可他却出差刚刚回来。
But that you helped me, I would have failed in the experiment. (本句中的上下文是:But that you helped me,表示:要不是有你帮助我)要没有你帮助我,我的试验本做不成功的。

2. 虚拟语气用于某些从句中的情况:

1)在主语从句中

在It + be +形容词/ 名词 + that从句的结构中,由于某些形容词/ 名词的原因,that从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟式"should + 动词原形"或是"动词原形"。
这类形容词/ 名词常见的有:essential(绝对必要的), important(重要的), advisable(明智的), desirable(希望能够的), imperative(必须的), natural(自然的), necessary必要的), regretful(遗憾的), strange(奇怪的), proper(适当的), urgent(紧急的), duty(义务、责任), a pity(遗憾), no wonder(难怪), a regret(遗憾), 例如:
It is strange that he ( should ) say so .他居然会这样说,真是奇怪。
It is a great pity that you ( should ) think so . 他居然会这样想,真是一件憾事。
It is natural that a bird ( should ) rest in trees . 鸟在树上安歇是很自然的。
It is necessary that he be sent to Beijing right away. 有必要立即派他去北京。

另外,下列结构中主语从句的谓语动词也要求用虚拟语气:
It is ordered that …(根据命令、要求……) ,
It is proposed that …(人们建议……)
It is desired that … (最好、需要……) ,
It is requested that … (人们要求……)
It is suggested that … (有人建议……) ,
It is recommended that …(有人推荐……)
It is demanded that …(根据要求……) ,
It is decided that …(已经决定……)
It is arranged that … (已经安排……) 等等。例如:
It is ordered that all the troops (should) withdraw three miles away.
根据命令,所有部队撤至三英哩以外。
It is arranged that he leave for Canada on Friday.
照安排,他星期五动身去加拿大。
It is suggested that the English evening be held on Saturday.
有人建议,英语晚会周六举行。

2)在宾语从句中
某些动词后面,宾语从句的谓语要求用虚拟式。宾语从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟式"should + 动词原形"或是"动词原形"。这类要求宾语从句的谓语用虚拟式的动词,常见的有:
command(命令), demand(要求), desire(希望), insist(坚持), order(命令), propose(提议), recommend(推荐), request(要求), require(要求), suggest(建议),等。例如:
He proposed that we ( should ) set a dead line for the complement of the plan .
他提议拟定一个执行计划的期限。
They requested that we ( should ) send a delegation to their country.
他们请求我们派一个代表团到他们国家去。
I suggested that he ( should ) set off for our headquarters straightaway .
我建议他马上动身去我们的总部。

另外,wish和would rather / sooner that …后面的宾语从句,
其中谓语动词的形式和对应用法如下表所述:

谓语动词的形式用法
过去式-------表示当时未能实现的愿望、意愿
过去完成式---表示过去未能实现的愿望、意愿
过去未来式---表示未来不大可能实现的愿望,意愿


(注意下列例句:wish自身的时态并不影响从句谓语动词的形式。)
I wish that I knew something about programming.
我希望我懂一点程序设计就好了。
I wished that I knew something about programming.
我当时希望我懂一点程序设计就好了。
They wish that they hadn't said it to us.
他们希望他们没有对我们说过那件事。
They wished that they hadn't said it to us.
他们当时希望他们没有对我们说过那件事。
I wish that you would get younger and younger .但愿你越来越年轻。
The manager would rather that his secretary went to the meeting instead of him .经理宁愿他的秘书代替他去开会。
He would sooner that he hadn't born until ten years ago .他宁愿他十年以前才出身。

3) 在表语从句和同位语从句中
下面这些名词的后面所接的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语动词要用虚拟式"should + 动词原形"或是直接用"动词原形" :
idea(想法), suggestion(建议), motion(动议), proposal(提议), order(命令), recommendation(推荐),advice (建议) , instruction (指示、指令)等等。例如:
The instruction was that nobody be allowed to go to sleep until further orders.(表语从句)指示要求,任何人不得在接到进一步的命令之前去睡觉。
My suggestion is that he leave for London at once . (表语从句)我的建议是他立即动身去伦敦。
What do you think of his proposal that we ( should )put on a play at the English evening? (同位语从句)他建议我们在英语晚会上演一个剧,你觉得怎么样?

4) 在状语从句中
在某些状语从句中,要求谓语动词要用虚拟式"should + 动词原形"或是"动词原形"。以as if 、as though(似乎,仿佛)引出的方式状语从,如果表示真实情况应该用直陈语气;
如果表示非真实情况则应该用虚拟语气, 其谓语动词的虚拟式与wish后面宾语从句中谓语动词的虚拟式相同。例如:
He took his umbrella with him lest it rain. (目的状语从句)他带了雨伞,以防下雨。
I'll keep a seat for you in case you should change your mind. (目的状语从句)我给你留个座,没准你会改变主意。
They burned all the important documents for fear that they fall into the enemy's hands. (目的状语从句)他们将所有的重要文件都烧毁了,以免它们落于敌人之手。
Though everyone desert you, we will not .(让步状语从句,这是间或的用法。)即使所有的人抛弃了你,我们也不会。
As long as a volume hold together, We don't care much about its outer appearance .(条件状语从句,这是间或的用法。)只要一本书不拆开,外表怎么样我们并不太在意。
This, if the news be true, will mean a lot to us. (条件状语从句,这是间或的用法。)如果这消息是真的,那对我们来说就太重要了。
I can still remember the whole thing in great detail as though it were yesterday.(方式状语从句)这一切我记忆犹新,仿佛就是昨天发生的事一样。
They are talking as if they had been friends for years. (方式状语从句)他们谈话的那股亲热劲就如同是多年的老朋友似的。

5) 在It is (high) time that…从句中
在这个句型中的that…从句里,无论何时、何人称,其谓语动词都用"过去式"。 这个句型表达的意思是"该是……的时候了"。例如:
It is time that we got ready for the final examination.该是我们为期末考试作准备的时候了。
It is high time that we had our lunch. 该是我们吃午饭的时候了。
It is time that he made up his mind. 该是他作出决定的时候了。

6) 在If only…从句中
"If only…从句"表示一种愿望或是向往的假设,其意义是"要是……就好了"、"但愿……"。这个句型中的语序是正常语序,不倒装。另外,其谓语动词的虚拟式与wish后面宾语从句中谓语动词的虚拟式相同。例如:

If only she could understand my real feelings.
要是她能了解我的真实想法就好了。
If only my mother had survived the disease and lived till now.
要是我妈妈没有死于疾病而活到现在就好了。
If only he would fine a satisfactory job after his graduation.
但愿他毕业后找到一份称心如意的工作。

3. 虚拟语气用于其他情况

首先,虚拟语气常用于表示客气、委婉的说法。它之所以能表示客气、委婉的意思,就是因为它的语气是虚拟的;也就是说,讲话的人有意识地将其所说的内容虚拟化,从而给听话人在是否接受所听到的内容方面留有较大空间、余地;而至于使听话人在是否接受所听到的内容方面感到有压力或是强迫感。从这个意义上讲,虚拟语气比直陈语气,祈使语气更为客气、委婉、礼貌。例如:
Could you tell me the way to the nearest shopping center ?
你能告诉我去最近的购物中心的路吗?
Would you mind lowering your voice? 请你小声点儿,行吗?
Perhaps you could get better results this way .你这样做效果或许要好一点。
Which seat might I take? 我可以坐哪个位子?

其次,在一些公式化的句子里也常用虚拟语气。这些公式化句子的谓语常用两种句式,
即:"动词原形"或是"may + 动词原形"(后者常用倒装句式)。例如:

God bless you! 上帝保佑你!
So be it then! 那就这样吧!
May the friendship between our two peoples last forever.祝愿我们两国人民的友谊万古青。
Come what may, we'll solve the problem by ourselves.无论发生什么情况,我们都要自己解决这个问题。

4.错综时间非真实条件句中的虚拟语气
在非真实条件句中,我们在条件句和主句中所用的虚拟语气句式是相对程式化的。
If the boy hadn't been saved this afternoon, his family would not be in peace now .
如果那个男孩今天下午没有被救,他的家现在就不会如此安宁。
If the machine were in good conditions, we would have used it in our last experiment. 要是这台机器情况良好,我们上次就将它用于试验了。
If you were to visit Hainan in two days, I could arrange some of my friends there to meet you at the airport.
假如你过两天去海南,我现在就可以安排我在那儿的朋友去机场接你。

数据载入中……
| 会员注册 | 会员登录 | 设为首页 | 加入收藏 | 联系站长 | 友情链接 | 版权申明 |
版权所有 Copyright© 2006 嘉兴英语网 飞扬网络工作室 []
| 站长:随心飞扬 | 信箱:jxenglish2006#163.com |
本站所有信息仅供参考,本站不保证其准确性,及时性及完整性,请使用者自行斟酌决定。
本站所提供的所有信息仅供学校课堂教学及英语学习者学习研究之用,其著作权归原作者及媒体所有。