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英语语法分词及独立主格的用法
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-6-1 | 字体: |
1.分词的时态和语态
1)分词分为现在分词和过去分词,其否定形式为not + 分词。现在分词有一般式和完成式。一般式用来指和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生的行为;完成式(having + 过去分词)用来指在谓语动词所表示的动作之前发生的动作。如:
Being a student,  he was interested in books.
Having studied in university for 3 years,  he knows the way very well.
2)现在分词有一般式和完成式,且有主动语态和被动语态。当句子的主语是分词动作的承受者时,分词用被动语态;如果强调分词的动作先于谓语的动作,就用分词完成式的被动形式。如:
The question being discussed is important.
Having been criticized by the teacher,  Li Ming gave up smoking.
 
2.分词的用法
1)作定语
分词短语作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之后;单个分词作定语时,放在被修饰的名词之前。如:
The man standing by the windows is our teacher.
The excited people rushed into the building.
注意:现在分词作定语时表示动作正在进行或与谓语动词所表示的动作几乎同时发生。如果两个动作有先有后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而要用定语从句。如:
The teacher criticized the student who had broken the window.
①现在分词作定语
A.现在分词作定前置时静感强,而后置的现在分词动感强。如:
The working people are the wisest.
The farmers working here are very busy.
能前置的现在分词为数不太多,常见的大都是已被形容词化了的现在分词,前常有程度副词,有些现在分词甚至还有比较等级。如:
I have brought very exciting news to you.
This is the most exciting story that I have ever read.
B.有些现在分词作定语时表示正在发生的动作,这些现在分词若改为定语从句宜用进行时态。如:
Did you tell the children playing there not to make any noise ?
Did you tell the children who were playing there not to make any noise ?
The American president visiting China now will return on Saturday.
The American president who is visiting China now will return on Saturday.
有些现在分词作定语时表示经常性动作或现在(或当时)的状态。此类现在人词若改为定语从句宜用一般时态,而不宜用进行时态。如:They stayed at a hotel standing (which stood) by the lake.
The temple standing (that stood) on top of the hill was built in the Ming Dynasty.
C.从形式来看,前置现在分词多为单个分词,而后置现在分词多为短语。但也不能绝对如此,要视情况而定。要是强调动感,即使是单个分词也应后置。如:
Look! The girl singing is Alice and one dancing is Mary.
从内容来讲,前置现在分词多为不及物动词,一般没有自己的宾语或状语。后置现在分词可带宾语状语。如:
Barking dogs seldom bite.
The person translating the songs can speak seven languages.
注意:现在分词的完成式与被动式一般都不能用作前置定语,而用作后置定语。
We must keep a secret of the things being discussed here.
②过去分词作定语
过去分词表示的动作或是在谓语所表示增添的动作之前发生,或是没有一定的时间性。如:
This is a book written by a famous Chinese writer.
He is a man loved by all.
如果指的动作现在正在发生或是与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,可用现在分词的被动形式作定语。如:
We must keep a secret of the things being discussed here.
如果指的是一个未来动作,可用不定式的被动形式作定语。如:
You are invited to a party to be given at our institute at 6: 00 next Sunday evening.
2)作状语
分词或分词短语作状语时,可以表示时间、原因、行为方式、伴随状况等。如:
Being a student,  I must study hard. (原因)
While reading the book,  he nodded from time to time. (时间)
The teacher stood there,  surrounded by the students. (方式)
分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语必须与句子的主语一致。如果分词与句子的主语是主动关系,用doing表示与谓语动词同时发生或进行的动作,用having done表示在谓语动词之前发生的动作。如果分词与句子的主语是被动关系,则用done强调在谓语动词之前发生的动作,也可用having been done.
表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连接词while或when引出。
有时“with(without) + 名词(或代词宾语) + 分词”的结构,表示伴随状况。如:
He lay half dead,  with all his ribs broken.
当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时,分词前必须加上自己的主语,此结构被称为独立主格结构。如:
Time permitting,  I will finish another lesson.
3)作表语。如:
The news is inspiring.
The glass is broken.
4)作宾语补足语。如:
We saw the teacher making the experiment.
注意:在see,hear,watch,fell,observe,have,notice等动词后,既可以用现在分词构成复合宾语,也可以用不定式构成复合宾语,但两者的含义是有区别的,用现在分词,表示动作正在发生(即处于发生的过程中,还没有结束),用不定式表示动作发生了(即动作全过程结束了)。如:
I saw the girl getting on the bus.
I saw the girl get into the car and drive off.
注意:“have + 宾语 + 现在分词”表示主体使客体处于某状态或干什么事;“have + 宾语 + 过去分词”表示动作是别人做的或与主体意志无关。如:
He had his clothes washed. (他叫别人洗了衣服。)
We had the fire burning all day. (我们使火燃烧了一整天。)
 
独立主格结构
(一)独立主格结构的构成
独立主格结构的构成方式为:名词普通格或代词主格 + 现在分词/过去分词/不定式/名词/形容词/副词/介词短语等。
使用独立主格结构是因为出现了与句子主语不一致的情况。
1.名词(或代词) + 现在分词
现在分词表示前面的名词或代词主动进行的动作或状态。如:
The man lay there,  his hands trembling.
有时,现在分词being或having been在独立主格结构中可以省略。如:
The weather(being)fine,  we decided to go on an outing.
 
2.名词(或代词) + 过去分词
过去分词表示前面的名词或代词被动完成的动作。如:
The girls lay on her back,  her hands crossed under her head.
 
3.名词(或代词) + 形容词(短语)
形容词(短语)在独立主格结构中说明前面名词或代词的性质、状态等。如:
The floor wet,  we had to stay outside for a while.
 
4.名词(或代词) + 副词
副词在独立主格结构中也多是说明名词或代词的状态。如:
The meeting over,  we all went home.
 
5.名词(或代词) + 介词短语
The teacher came in,  a book in his hand.
 
6.名词(或代词) + 不定式(短语)
不定式表示将来的动作。如:
He suggested going for a picnic,  Mary to provide the food.
有时独立主格结构中名词前的定语可以省略。如:
The boy sat quietly in the office,  (his) eyes closed/(a) book in (his) hand.
 
(二)独立主格结构的作用
1.作状语
1)表示时间
His homework done(=After his homework was done),Mary decided to go shopping.
2)表示原因
There being no buses(=Because there were no buses),we had to walk home.
3)表示条件
Weather permitting(=If weather permits),we’ll go to play basketball.
4)表示方式或伴随
He sat at the table,  head down.
2.作同位语
Many people joined in the work,  some of them women and children.
3.作定语
Close to the bank,  we saw deep pools,  the water blue like the sky.
(三)有时用with/without引导的复合结构作状语,在句中可作定语或状语。如:
Do you know the girl with a basket on her back ?
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