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魔法英语语法:第四章  情态动词
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-9-8 | 字体: |


D. will和would
  1.will和would可用于第二人称疑问句,表示请求和建议等。would比 will委婉客气。
  Will you have some tea
  你喝点茶,好吗?
  Will you share your happiness with us
  你可以把你的欢乐与我们共享吗?
  Would you pass this book to the student in the last row
  请你把这本书传给最后一排的学生好吗?
  必背:
  WillWould you ... 表示请求和建议的答复。
  肯定回答
  Yes, please. 是的,请。
  Certainly. 当然可以。
  Sure. 当然了。
  All right. 好啊!

  否定回答
  I'm sorry. I can't. 对不起,不行。
  No, thank you. 不,不行。
  No, I won't. 不,不行。

  2.will和would可表示意志、愿望和决心,用于各种人称陈述句。
  I will do anything for you.
  我愿为你做任何事。
  I will never tell you the secret.
  我永远不会告诉你这个秘密。
  None is so blind as those who won't see.
  不愿看的人眼睛最瞎。
  They would not let him in because he was poorly dressed.
  他们不让他进去因为他衣着破旧。

  3.will和would可表示某种倾向或习惯性动作。will表示现在的习惯动作,would表示过去的习惯动作。
  He will surf the Internet every night.
  他每天晚上都在上网。
  The boy will sit there hour after hour looking at the traffic go by.
  那男孩常常坐在那儿好几个钟头,看着车辆行人通过。
  He would be nervous when he met strangers.
  遇见陌生人时他总是很紧张。
  In class he would ask some silly questions, and his classmates would laugh at him.
  课上,他总是问一些蠢问题,他的同学们总是嘲笑他。

  4.will可表示固执坚持,这时will不可使用'll的简略形式。用于非人称主语时,表示物体的固有性质和倾向。
  I will take the job, and no one can stop me.
  我就要这个工作,没有人可阻止我。
  He won't do what he's told.
  他就是不愿按所吩咐的去做。
  The window won't open.
  窗子打不开。
  This glass will not crack under heavy pressure.
  这种玻璃在重压下也不会破碎。

  5.will表示将来时间时,不可用于条件状语从句,但will表示意愿或决心时,可用于条件状语从句。
  If you will read the book, I'll lend it to you.
  如果你愿意读这本书,我会把它借给你。
  If you will give up smoking, your health will improve.
 如果你愿意把烟戒掉的话,你的健康状况就会好转。

  6.will和would可表示推论或猜测。
  The patient took the sleeping pills an hour ago. He will be asleep now.
  病人一小时前吃的安眠药,现在应该睡着了。
  It would be about ten when he left home.
  他大约在十点钟离开的家。
  I thought he would have told you about it.
  我认为他已告知你此事。
  It would be raining when she went home.
  她回家时可能正在下雨。
比较:
  Would you like ...表示邀请
  Do you like ...表示习惯
  ——Do you like going go the cinema
  你喜欢看电影吗?
  ——Yes,I go to the cinema a lot.
   是的,我经常去看电影。
  ——Would you like to go to the cinema tonight
  今天晚上去看电影好吗?
  ——Yes,I'd love to.
  非常乐意。

  E.shall和should

  1.shall
  ①表示征询意见或请求指示,用于一、三人称疑问句。
  Shall I carry it for you
  我来帮你搬它,好吗?
  Shall we sing a song
  我们唱一支歌,好吗?
  Shall they wait outside
  让他们在外面等吗?
  Shall the waiter bring meals to your room
  要服务员把饭送到你房间去吗?
提示:
  Shall I open the window
  我打开窗子好吗?
  Will you open the window
  你打开窗子好吗?
  Shall he open the window
  他打开窗子好吗?
  ②表示说话人的意愿,有“命令、允诺、警告、决心”等意思,用于第二、三人称陈述句中。
  You shall do as I say.
  按我说的做。(命令)
  He shall be sorry for it one day, I tell you.
  我告诉你,总有一天他会后悔的。(警告)
  You shall fall behind in your exam if you keep playing.
  如果你一直玩,你就会在考试中落后。
  Nothing shall stop us from carrying out the plan.
  什么也阻止不了我们执行这项计划。(决心)
  He shall have the book when I finish reading.
  我看完这本书就给他看。(允诺)
  I shall do my homework after reading this story book.
  读完这本故事书后我就做作业。

  2.should
  ①表示义务,意为“应该”(某件事宜于做),用于各种人称。
  Children should obey their parents.
 儿童应该服从他们的父母。
  One shouldn't be selfish.
  人千万别自私。
  Customers who get bad service should complain, shouldn't they
 没有得到满意服务的顾客应该抱怨,不是吗?
  ②常与what, how, why等词连用,表示意外、惊讶等情绪。
  How should I know
  我怎么会知道呢
  Why should I fear
  我为什么会害怕?
  What should she do but cry for help
  除了呼救外,她还能干什么?
  I don't know why you should think I did it.
  我真不知道你凭什么认为这件事是我干的。
  ③表示对过去、现在或将来情况的某种推测,可译为“可能、照说应该”。
  It should be fine tomorrow.
  明天可能天是晴天。
  He should be taking a bath now.
  他可能在洗澡。
  It's nearly seven o'clock. Jack should be here at any moment.
  已经快七点了,杰克随时都可能到这儿。
  The film should be very good as it is starring first-class actors.
  这部新电影是一流演员主演的,估计拍得很好。
  ④表示对现在或以前的动作的责怪、批评(应做的事却没做)。
  The boys shouldn't be playing football. They should be at school.
  这些男孩子不应该在踢足球,他们应该在上课。
  You shouldn't have entered the teachers' office without permission.
  没有允许你们不应该进老师办公室。
 
F.ought to
  1.表示义务,意为“应该”(因责任、义务而该做),口气比should稍重。
  We ought to defend our country.
  我们应当保卫我们的国家。(每一个公民应尽的义务)
  You ought to respect your parents.
  你应当尊敬你的父母。
  Oughtn't we to do everything possible to stop pollution
  难道我们不应当尽可能地制止污染吗?
  2.表示推测,暗含很大的可能,可译为“应该是,会是”。
  Prices ought to come down soon.
  价格可能会很快下跌。
  Han Mei ought to know his telephone number.
  韩梅该知道他的电话号码。
  There's a fine sunset; it ought to be a fine day tomorrow.
  今天有晚霞,明天应该是个好天。
  3.ought to和should一样,表示对现在或以前应做的事却没做的责怪、批评。
  You ought to be washing your clothes. Why are you playing Ping-Pong
 你应该在洗衣服(可是你没洗)。为什么你在打乒乓球?
  You ought to have handed in the exercise last week.
  你上周就应当交练习。(可你没交,含责备的意思。)
  He ought to have asked me before he took my bike.
  他在用我自行车之前应该和我讲一声。

  4.ought to 与should的比较。
  ought to 和should的含义较近,但不完全相同。ought to表示“应该”, 是从“义务”或“按理推断”的角度来讲的。should则是从说话人的个人看法这一角度来讲的。
  You are her mother. You ought to look after her.
 你是她的母亲,你应当照管她。(是道义上的责任,不能和should互换。)
  We should encourage him for we are his classmates.
  我们应该鼓励他,我们是他的同班同学啊!
  提示:
  表示“义务”时,我们在口语中可以用had better或be supposed to 来代替should和ought to。
  If you are not well, you had better ask Alice to go instead.
  如果你不舒服,你最好叫艾丽丝代替你去。
  I'm supposed to be there at 8 o'clock.
  我应该八点到那里。

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