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魔法英语语法:第十二章  直接引语和间接引语
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-9-9 | 字体: |

第十二章  直接引语和间接引语

   引述某人的话一般采用两种形式:一种是直接引语(Direct Speech),即原封不动地引用原话,把它放在引号内;另一种是间接引语(Indirect Speech),即用自己的话加以转述,被转述的内容不放在引号内。

一、 直接引语变间接引语

A. 陈述句的间接引语

   直接引语是陈述句,变为间接引语时,在多数情况下都构成一个that引导的宾语从句,引述动词通常是say, tell等。与此同时,间接引语中的人称、时态和其他方面也要相应有所变化。
  The foreigner aid to me, I like Beijing very much.那老外告诉我:我很喜欢北京。
  → The foreigner told me that he she liked Beijing very much. 那老外告诉我说他(她)很喜欢北京。
  She said,We are very fond of sports. 她说:我们都喜欢体育运动。
  → She said that they were very fond of sports. 她说他(她)们都喜欢体运动。
  I'll go over the grammar lesson once again,he said. 他说:我将把语法课再复习一遍。
  → He said he would go over the grammar lesson once again. 他说他将要把语法课再复习一遍。(that可省略)

B. 疑问句的间接引语

  1.一般疑问句和反意疑问句
  一般疑问句改为间接引语时,要用陈述语序,并要加连词if 或 whether,其主句动词常用ask, wonder, wantto know, didn't know等。句末不用问号。
  My teacher asked me, Do you like American country music 我老师问我:你喜欢美国乡村音乐吗?
  → My teacher asked me ifwhether I liked American country music. 我老师问我是否喜欢美国乡村音乐。
  You haven't been to Beijing, have you asked he. 他问:你没去过北,是吗?
  → He asked me ifwhether I had been to Beijing. 他问我是否去过北京。

  2.否定的一般疑问句和选择问句
  如果直接引语为否定的一般问句或选择疑问句时,用whetheror 连接。
  She said, Don't you know my telephone number 她说:你难道不知道我的电话号码吗?
  → She asked me whether I knew her telephone number or not. 她问我是知道她的电话号码。
  Do you like this one or that one Tom asked. 汤姆问:你是喜欢这个还是那个?
  → Tom asked me whether I liked this one or that one. 汤姆问我是喜欢这个还是那个。

  3.特殊疑问句
  间接引语为特殊疑问句时,间接引语前仍然用特殊疑问词作为连词引导宾语从句,注意从句必须用陈述语序,主句谓语动词常用ask。
  He asked, How do you like it 他问:你觉得怎样?
  → He asked me how I liked it. 他问我觉得它怎样。
  She asked me, What's the matter with you 她问我:你怎么啦?
  → She asked me what was the matter with me. 她问我我怎么啦。
  How many books do you have she asked. 她问:你有多少本书?
  → She asked me how many books I had. 她问我有多少本。

  4.其它
  英语中有些疑问句并非提出疑问,而是表示请求、劝告、建议等。这种疑问句变为间接引语时,往往采用其他的形式。
  ①.suggest doing
  Shall we all go to the film tonight said Michael. 迈克尔说:我们今晚都去看电影,好吗?
  → Michael suggested going to the film tonight. 迈克尔建议今晚都去看电影。
  What about having a drink he asked. 他问:喝杯怎么样?
  He suggested having a drink. 他建议喝一杯。
  ②.advise sb to do
  Why don't you go hiking asked James. 詹姆士问:你为什么不徒步旅行?
  James advised me to go hiking. 詹姆士建议我去徒步旅行。
  ③. offer to do
  He said, Would you like me to post the letter 他说:你要我寄信吗?
  He offered to ost the letter. 他主动提出寄信。
  ④.ask sb to do
  Will you please bring your reference book here tomorrow she said to me. 她对我说:劳驾你明天把你的参考书带来好吗?
  → She asked me to take my reference book there the next day. 她让我第二天把我的参考书带去。

C. 祈使句的间接引语

  1.直接引语为祈使句时,间接引语往往用复合宾来表示,其结构为主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语(动词不定式)。引述动词可根据口气选用tell, ask, order, command, request等词,句中please去掉。
  She said to me, Please have a rest. 她对我说:请休息一下。
  → She asked me to have a rest. 她要求我休息一下。
  Don't all answer at once, she said to the pupils. 她对学生说:大家不要齐声回答。→ She told the pupils not to answer all at once. 她叫学生不要齐声回答。

  2.带有let的祈使句(表示请求,建议或命令),可用suggest + -ing形式或suggest +that从句来表示其相应的意思。
  Let's go for a walk, said the girl. 那姑娘说,让我们去散散步吧。
  → The girl suggested going for a walk. 这女孩建议去散散步。
  The teacher sai, Let Lily tidy the classroom. 老师说:让莉莉整理教室。
  → The teacher suggested that Lily should tidy the classroom. 老师建议让莉莉整理教室。

D. 感叹句的间接引语

  1.直接引语是感叹句变为间接引语时,多采用宾语从句结构,既可用what或how引导,也可用that引导。
  What a clever boy you are!my teacher said to him. 老师对他说,你是个聪明的孩子啊!
  → My teacher told him what a clever boy he was. 老师对他说他是一个多聪明的孩子啊。
  → My teacher told him that he was a very clever boy. 老师说他是一个非常聪明的孩子。
  He said, How well you look! 他说:你看起来气色多好啊!
  → He said how well I looked. 他说我看起来是气色多好啊。
  → He said that I ooked very well. 他说我看起来气色很好。

  2.有些感叹句可以根据原句的意思,采用适当的动词变为陈述句,不需用间接宾语来转述。
  Help! he cried. 他喊到:救命啊!
  → He called for help. 他大声呼救。
  What terrible weather it is!he said. 他说:多么糟糕的天气!
  → He complained about the terrible weather. 他抱怨这糟糕的天气。
  Happy Chrismas! he said. 他说:圣诞快乐!
  He wished me a happy Christmas. 他祝我圣诞快乐。

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