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“未曾实现的愿望、打算”表达法种种
| 文章作者:杨开成 张秀清 | 文章来源:中小学教育网 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-11-29 | 字体: |

英语中有多种结构可以用来表示“未曾实现的愿望、意图或打算”,现归纳如下:

1. “动词的过去完成时形式 + 动词不定式的一般式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”时,只适用于 hope ,expect ,think ,mean ,intend ,suppose ,want ,plan 等动词作谓语时。例如:

I had hoped to come to help you. Something happened to me. That’s why I didn’t come.

我本希望能来帮助你,但我出了点事,所以没有来。

I had meant to go away but couldn’t get rid of the children.

我本想走开,但是我摆脱不了这群孩子。

2. “动词的过去式 + 动词不定式的完成式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”,这种用法也只适用于上面列举的动词作谓语时。例如:

I wanted to have seen you off at the airport but I got there too late.

我本来想到机场送你,但是我到那里太迟了。

Tom hoped to have come, but he was too busy at that time.

汤姆本想来的,但当时他太忙了,抽不出时间。

3. “动词的过去式 + 宾语 + 动词不定式的完成式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”,这一用法常用于 expect ,want ,mean ,intend 等动词作谓语时。例如:

My father expected me to have studied medicine,but I joined the army.

我父亲本来指望我学医的,但是我却参军了。

We meant them to have acted like that.

我们原打算让他们这样干的。

4. 用“ think ,expect ,suppose ,hope ,believe 等动词的过去完成时形式 + 宾语从句”表示“过去未曾实现的意图、打算或希望等”。例如:

I had though that he died 20 years ago.

我原以为他 20 年前就去世了。

They had hoped that they would be able to see more of Beijing, but time didn’t permit.

他们本来希望在北京多看些地方,但时间不允许。

5. “ was/were+ 动词不定式的完成式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。“ was / were + 动词不定式的一般式”与上下文中的动词过去式搭配,也能表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

Alice was to have given the first talk, but she came late.

爱丽斯本来要第一个发言,但她来晚了。

The plane was to take off / to have taken off at six, but something went wrong.

飞机本来六点起飞,但是出了故障。

注意:“ was / were+ 动词不定式的完成式”结构有时含有“本应该”的意味,相当于“ was / were supposed to ”。例如:

They were to have come here at eight, but they were late.

他们本应该八点钟到这儿的,但他们迟到了。

6. 用“ was / were going + 动词不定式”结构与上下文中的动词过去式搭配,可以表示“过去未实现的意图或打算”。例如:

“ Tom, why didn’t you come to the meeting yesterday? ”

“ I was going to, but my car broke down. ”

“汤姆,你为什么昨天没来参加会?”

“我是打算来参加会的,但我的车抛锚了。”

I was going to call you last night, but the heavy rain prevented me.

昨晚我本来要去拜访你的,但一场大雨使我未能成行。

7. 用“ was / were + about + 动词不定式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的意图”。例如:

I was about to go out, but it began to rain.

我本来要出去的,但天开始下起雨来。

Mike was about to begin, but John spoke first.

迈克正要开始发言,但约翰先讲了。

8. 用动词的过去进行时表示“未曾实现的安排”。例如:

I was telephoning him, but he came.

我本来打算给他打电话的,但他来了。

We were interviewing the headmaster the next afternoon, but he went to Wuhan on business.

我们本打算在第二天下午采访那位校长的,但他去武汉出差了。

9. “ wish + 动词不定式的完成式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

“ Have you watched the TV play? ”

“ No, but I wished to have ( watched it ) . ”

“你看过这部电视剧吗?”

“没有,我本来想看的。”

I wished to have visited the Great Wall last Sunday but my mother fell ill; I had to look after her.

上星期天我本想去参观长城的,但我母亲病倒了,我不得不照料她。

10. “ wish + (that) + 主语 + 动词的过去完成时”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

I wish I had taken your advice. 我当初听了你的话就好了。

We wish we had arrived there two hours earlier.

我们要是早两个小时到达那里就好了。


11. “ would rather + 不带 to 的动词不定式的完成式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

I would rather have gone to the cinema last night, but my old friend came to see me.

昨天晚上我本来想去看电影的,但我的一位老朋友来看我了。

He would rather have learned another foreign language, but he was too busy.

他本来是想再学一门外语的,可是他太忙了。

12. “ would rather + (that) + 主语 + 动词过去完成时 / 情态动词 +have+ 过去分词”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

I would rather I had stayed at Tom’s, but he refused.

我本来是想呆在汤姆家的,但他拒绝了。

I would rather you could have come and helped me at that time.

我本想着你那时能来助我一臂之力的。

13. “ would like / love + 动词不定式的完成式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

I would love to have gone to the party last night, but I had to work extra hours to finish a report.

昨天晚上我很想去参加聚会,但是我得加班写一个报告。

I would like to have given you a call, but I forgot.

我本来想给你打电话的,但却忘记了。

14. “ would have liked + 动词不定式”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

I would have liked to go to the ball, but I was not invited.

我本想去参加那个舞会的,但没人邀请我。

Jack would have liked to practise law, but his father told him to join the army.

杰克本来是想搞法律的,但他父亲却要他从军。

15. “ if only + 主语 + 动词过去完成时 / 情态动词 +have + 过去分词”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

If only you had gone to the party.

你要是去参加晚会该多好!

If only I could have had enough money.

我当时要有足够的钱就好了。

16. “ would that + 主语 + 动词过去完成时 / 情态动词 + have + 过去分词”结构表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

Would that I had seen ( could have seen ) her before she went abroad.

我真希望在她出国前能见到她。

17. 用“表示与过去事实相反的虚拟条件句”表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。即从句用过去完成时,主句用“ should ( might, could, would ) + have + 过去分词”。例如:

If I had been there, I would have helped him.

如果我那时在那儿,我就帮助他了。

If I had had a single cent, I could have lent it to you.

如果我当时有一分钱我也能借给你。

18. “ should / ought to have done sth ”表示“过去应该做某事而实际上没有做到”;其否定式则表示“过去不应该做某事而实际上做了”,含责备的意味。例如:

Jenny should have kept her word, I wonder why she changed her mind.

詹妮应该说话算数的,我不知道她为什么改变了主意。

Tom ought not to have told me your secret but he meant no harm.

汤姆本不该把你的秘密告诉我的,但他并没有恶意。

19. “ could have done sth ”表示“过去可能发生但事实上并未发生某事”。例如:

“ I stayed at a hotel while in New York. ”

“ Oh, did you? You could have stayed with Barbara. ”

“我在纽约的时候住在一家旅馆里。”

“啊,是吗?你本来是可以和巴巴拉住在一起的。”

20. “ would have done ”表示“过去想实现但实际上未实现的愿望或要求”。例如:

I would have walked there but something was wrong with my leg.

我本来是想步行到那里去的,但我的腿出了毛病。

21. “ had better + have done ”表示“过去未曾实现的愿望”。例如:

We had better have gone to the football match last night.

要是我们昨天晚上去看那场足球赛就好了。

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