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高考英语结构型典型陷阱题详解
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2009-1-31 | 字体: |

高考英语结构型典型陷阱题详解

本来一个很简单的句子,有时由于表达的需要,往往在其中插入一个成分,或将其中某些成分从正常位置调到一个看来属“非正常”的位置(如宾语从句前置等),则很有可能给同学们的理解带来困难(尤其是阅读能力不是很好的同学会更加感觉到困难)。如果命题人就此命题,那就更麻烦了。请看以下典型实例:

  1. Don’t you know, my dear friend,______ it is you that she loves?
  A. who B. whichC. that D. what
  【分析】此题容易误选 A 或 B,选 A 者认为这是指人的,故用 who;选 B 者认为这是非限制性定语从句,两者都误认为这是定语从句(注意没有先行词)。其实此题应选 C,它引导的是一个宾语从句,只是被其中的插入语 my dear friend 隔开罢了。其实此句也可说成 My dear friend, don’t you know that it is you that she loves? 又如:
  I think, though I could be mistaken,______ he liked me.
  A. whoB. whichC. thatD. what
  答案选 C,句子可改写为 I think that he liked me, though I could be mistaken. 即 that he liked me 是动词 think 之宾语。

  2. He told me the news,believe it or not,______ he had earned $1000 in a single day.
  A. thatB. whichC. as D. because
  【分析】此题容易误选 B, 误认为这是非限制性定语从句。其实此题应选 A, that 引导的是一个用以修饰名词 the news 的同位语从句。不少同学之所以误选 B, 正是因为 believe it or not (信不信由你)这个插入成分惹的祸。

  3. John plays football ______, if not better than, David.
  A. as well B. as well asC. so wellD. so well as
  【分析】此句的正常结构是这样的:John plays football as well as David,if he doesn’t play football better than David. 由于命题者将其后的状语从句移至句中,且将其省略成 if not better than,不少同学对这个句子的分析感到无从下手,从而导致误选。此题正确答案应为 B。全句意为:John 踢球如果不是比 David 踢得更好,至少也是一样好。请做以下类似试题 (答案均选 D):
  (1)Her pronunciation is ______, if not better than, her teacher’s.
  A. as well B. as well asC. as good D. as good as
  (2)This bridge is ______, if not stronger than, that one.
  A. so strongB. as strongC. so strong as D. as strong as
  (3)He has been to Paris ______, if not more than, ten times.
  A. so muchB. so many C. so much D. as many as

  4. The film brought the hours back to me ______ I was taken good care of in that far-away village.
  A. untilB. thatC. whenD. where
  【分析】此题容易误选 B, 误认为 that 引导一个宾语从句。其实此题应选 C,when 引导的是一个修饰 the hours 的定语从句,该题的难点是定语从句与先行词 the hours 被分离了。其实关系副词 when 引导的定语从句与先行词分离的情况在英语中并不少见,如:
  (1)The days are gone forever ______ we didn’t have enough to eat.
  A. sinceB. that C. whereD. when
  答案选 D。when we didn’t have enough to eat 修饰 the days。
  (2)I believe the time will soon come ______ there will be no weapons in the world.
  A. sinceB. that C. whereD. when
  答案选 D。when there will be no weapons in the world 修饰 the time。

  5. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play,______ , of course, made the others unhappy.
  A. whoB. whichC. this D. what
  【分析】许多同学认为此题句子结构比较混乱,逗号太多,难于理清头绪。请同学们先看下面一句:Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play,made the others unhappy. 一般同学都知道此题应填关系代词 which, 用以引导一个非限制性的定语从句。事实上,上面一题就是根据此题演变出来的,只不过在 which 与 made 之间插入了一个 of course。所以此题应选 B。又如:
  (1)The meeting was put off,______, of course, was exactly what we wanted.
  A. who B. which C. this D. what
  (2)He was very fond of speaking French,______ , indeed, he spoke well.
  A. whoB. which
  C. this D. what
  以上两题答案均选 B, which 引导的为非限制性定语从句,其后的 of course 和 indeed 为插入成分。

  6.“Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons,______ to go to university.”“So do I”.
      A. hopeB. hopes
  C. hoping D. hoped
  【分析】此题应选 B,句子的真正主语是 each of the students,空格处填的 hopes 是句子谓语,其中的 working hard at his or her lessons 是插入句中修饰主语的非限制性定语。又如:
  (1)Each of the students, hoping to pass the exam,
  ______ the book.
  A. buyingB. having bought
  C. must buyD. to buy
  答案选 C, each of the students 是句子主语,空格处为句子谓语,hoping to pass the exam 是修饰句子主语的非限制性定语。
  (2)Many countries, for example, Mexico and Japan,
  ______ a lot of earthquakes.
  A. haveB. having
  C. to have D. having had
  答案选 A, many countries 是句子主语,空格处为句子谓语。

  7. “I haven’t heard from Henry for a long time.”“What do you suppose ______ to him?”
  A. was happeningB. to happen
  C. has happenedD. had happened
  【分析】此题容易误选 B, 认为动词 suppose 后接动词用不定式。正确答案应是 C, 其中的 do you suppose 是插入成分。请看以下类似情形(答案均选 D):
  (1) Who do you think ______ the money?
  A. to steal B. stealing C. to have stolen D. stole
  (2) What do you suppose ______ him think so?
  A. to make B. making C. to have made D. made
  (3) Who do you guess ______ to the station to meet her?
  A. to goB. goingC. to have gone D. went
  (4) What do you imagine ______ him from going?
  A. to prevent B. preventing
  C. to have preventedD. prevented
  以下各例中的 do you think (believe,suppose, imagine, guess, etc)也是插入成分,其后接的句子应用陈述句词序:
  Who do you think he will marry? 你认为他会同谁结婚?
  What do you think we should give her?你认为我们该给她点什么呢?
  When do you believe he will come? 你认为他会什么时候来?
  What do you guess he wants to buy? 你猜他想买什么呢?

  8. She looks forward every spring to ______ the flower-lined garden.
  A. visit B. paying a visit
  C. walk inD. walking in
  【分析】此题考查的关键是短语 look forward to(盼望),其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号。由于句中插入了 every spring 这一状语,使得 look forward 与介词 to 分离,从而使许多考生误选。有了以上分析,我们知道,空格前的 to 是介词,所以后接动词用动名词,应选 B 或 D;又由于 pay a visit 后不能带宾语(比较:pay a visit to 后可带宾语),所以只能选 D。

  9. An awful accident ______, however, occur the other day.
  A. doesB. did
  C. has to D. had to
  【分析】此题正确答案应选 B,句末的 the other day 意为“前几天”,所以句子应用过去时态。而选项 D 填进去不合题意,故选 B。此句有两个难点:一是句中插有 however 一词,分散了同学们的注意力;二是所填选项 B 为许多同学所不熟悉的强调用法。又如(答案均选 B):
  (1) Your mother ______, however, say that to us that day.
  A. doesB. did
  C. is doing D. was doing
  (2) Our math teacher ______, however, speak English well.
  A. doingB. doesC. is doing D. was doing

  10. It was lack of money, not of effort,defeated their plan.
  A. whichB. as C. that D. what
  【分析】此题容易误选 A,受空格前逗号的影响,误认为这是一个非限制性定语从句。其实,此题最佳答案为 C,整个句子为一个 it was...that...结构,就是强调句,被强调成分为 lack of money, not of effort。由于句中插入 not of effort 这一结构,干扰了许多同学对 it was lack of money that defeated their plan 这一强调句的认识和分析。

  11. Would you care to wait here, sir,______ the manager can see you?
  A. whenB. sinceC. untilD. while
  【分析】如果撇开句中的插入成分 sir,句子则为 Would you care to wait herethe manager can see you? 根据句意,显然应填 until。

  12. He believes in himself,______, in my opinion, is of the most important.
  A. that B. whichC. whatD. as
   【分析】此题应选 B,句中的 in my opinion 为插入成分,如果将其撇开,句子则为 He believes in himself,is of the most important. 空格处显然应填 which,用以引导一个非限制性的定语从句,句意为:他很自信,我认为这是最重要的。

  13. She promised ______ he had enough money she would marry him.
  A. that B. ifC. that if D. if that
  【分析】此题应选 C,其余几项均有可能误选。句子的正常词序为:She promised that she would marry him if he had enough money. 由于将条件状语从句 if he had enough money 插入动词 promised 与其宾语从句之间,从而导致许多同学误选。顺便说一句,本来动词 promise 后接宾语从句时,引导宾语从句的 that 是可以省略的,但是按英语习惯,当动词与其宾语从句之间插有其他成分时,引导宾语从句的 that 通常不宜省略,所以此题不宜选 B。又如:
  She promised that if anyone found her son she would give him a lot of money. 她答应要是谁找到她儿子,她会给他一大笔钱。(句子可改为 She promised that she would give him a lot of money if anyone found her son.)
  He said that when his wife came back he would leave. 他说等他妻子一回来,他就离开。(句子可改写为 He said that he would leave when his wife came back.)
  Tell him that if he is at home I’ll come to see him. 告诉他,如果他在家,我就去看他。(句子可改写为 Tell him (that) I’ll come to see him if he is at home.)

  14. The train,______ takes only two hours to get there, is quicker than the bus,______ takes three.
  A. which, itB. it, whichC. which,which D. it, it
  【分析】此题答案选 C,主句为 The train is quicker than the bus. 其中的 which takes only two hours to get there 和 which takes three 是插入句中修饰 the train 和 the bus 的两个非限制性定语从句。类例:
  The man,______ is a lawyer, earns more than his wife,______ works as a nurse.
  A. who, she B. he, whoC. who, who D. he, she
  答案选 C,主句为 The man earns more than his wife. 其中的 who is a lawyer 和 who works as a nurse 是两个非限制性定语从句,分别修饰 the man 和 his wife。

  15. By the window sits his wife, who, dressed in black,______ like my aunt.
  A. lookB. lookingC. lookedD. looks
  【分析】答案选 D,但 B 和 C 可能被误选。此句的基本结构是 His wife sits by the window,由于句子主语 his wife 带有自己较复杂的修饰语,所以采用了倒装语序(By the window sits his wife...)。另一方面,由于 his wife 后接的定语从句 who looks like my aunt 中插入了一个过去分词短语(dressed in black),所以有的同学没有意识到 looks 是定语从句的谓语,而考虑到选 looked 与前面的过去分词 dressed 保持一致。

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