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高考英语中单项选择易错原因及分析
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2009-1-31 | 字体: |

高考中单项选择易错原因及分析

单项选择是英语高考的一个必考题型。单选题不是单纯地考查“纯语法”或“纯词汇”,而是在特定的语言环境中考查考生综合运用语言的能力。
    先请试着回答以下三道单项选择题:
  1. Do you expect ______ to be a possibility that Palestine and Israel will make a peace agreement after Yasser Arafat died.
  A. that   B. there    C. one    D. it
  2. He got to the station early, ______ missing his train.
  A. in case of     B. instead of    C. for fear of    D. in search of
  3. How long do you suppose is it ______ he arrived here?
  A. after    B. since    C. before   D. when
  核对答案之前,先反思一下刚才答题时思考的过程,看看自己属于下面的哪一类:一类是先看选项,看看可能考哪一个知识点,于是就先有个“预期”,比如第一题感觉是考不定代词it,所以就选择了D;再一类是,先读一下题干,大致感觉一下这句话要说什么,然后再把选项回填句中,看哪个对,比如第二题,是说“他早早到了车站,……误了火车”,一看第一个选项,“觉得”是“以防”的意思,就选择了A。
  如果第一、二题你分别选择了D和A,又是上面所述的“答题思路”,那你就犯了单选答题最典型的,也是最“致命”的错误,即在没有明确题干语义的情况下仓促选择。正确答案应当分别是B和C。
  高考英语试卷的15道单项选择题,答题失误率非常高。平时备考,同学们做了不计其数的练习,但总是陷入“做了错,错了做”的恶性循环,究其原因,是同学们把单选真的看成“题”了,而不是看成是进行语言交流。语言交流,首先就要清楚,人家要讲什么,它决定你如何选,选什么。
  以第三题为例:题干说什么呢?如果你看不出来,不妨将题干做一个变换,即做一个回答:
  ——How long do you suppose is it ______ he arrived here?
  ——I suppose it is a week ______ he arrived here.
  上面a week是你自己随便添加的时间段,但恰恰是这样的添加回答,使刚才似乎不是很清晰的结构,一下子变成我们学习现在完成时时,最典型的一个结构“做……到现在已经有……时间了”。由此,很容易选出B. since。
  从上面的这个例子,我们可以看出,做单项选择题,不要急于先看选项,更不要一个一个选项地往空里带。要首先尝试语义,语义准了,答题才有保证。我们再回到第一题:
  题干上的关键点是“…a possibility that Palestine and Israel will make a peace agreement after Yasser Arafat died.”也就是“阿拉法特去世后,巴勒斯坦和以色列达成和平协议的可能”。而可能“possibility”是名词,有没有可能是“there is a possibility…”,在这里需要用不定式结构,即“Do you expect there to be a possibility…”。如果使用it,题干应当是:
  Do you think ______ is possible that Palestine and Israel will make a peace agreement after Yasser Arafat died.
  因此,这道题考查了同学们在搞清语义基础上辨别句式结构的能力。
  再看第二题的题干“他早早到了车站,……误了火车”,应当是“担心,怕”误了火车,因此,选项C. for fear of正符合语义。in case of something用来描述在某些特定情境下,你应该做什么,特别用在官方的和正式的通知中,例如:
  In case of fire, break the glass. 如果失火,砸碎玻璃。
  从上面的讲解不难看出,同学们在做单项选择训练时,务必首先建立“语义领先”的意识,要读准,然后有一个正确的期待,然后再在选项中找出是哪一个,千万不要一个一个去试,这才是回答单项选择题的正确思路。
   易错点一 思维定势干扰
典例1 (2007年重庆卷) Isn’t it time you got down to ___ the papers?
A. mark B. be marked
C. being marked D. marking
【命题意图】 介词to与不定式符号to辨析
【解题思路】 正确答案为D。考生易误以为考查动词不定式结构而选A。其实本题考查短语get down to doing sth的用法,意思是开始认真对待某事。
【失误警示】思维定势是指在长期的思维过程中所形成的一种固定的思维模式。运用得当,它可以帮助考生在短时间内调集解决问题所需的相关知识进行分析、推理,并得出正确的答案;运用不当,便会误导考生,使其掉入命题人预设的陷阱。

   易错点二 冗余信息干扰
典例2 (2007年江西卷) Attention, coffee lovers! We have for you, the best coffee machine ___ invented.
A. ever B. already C. even D. nowadays
【命题意图】 特定语境中的副词辨析
【解题思路】 正确答案为A。本题的主体句是We have the best coffee machine ___ invented,而分词短语ever invented = which have ever been invented是定语修饰语;for you不影响主体句答案的选择。
【失误警示】常见的冗余信息有插入语、后置定语、前置状语、从句等。对于此类题目,考生可以反其道而行之,去掉冗余部分,这样,答案就会一目了然。

    易错点三被表面现象迷惑
典例3 (2007年辽宁卷) You can’t imagine what difficulty we had ______ home in the snowstorm.
A. walked B. walk C. to walk D. walking
【命题意图】 英语固定句型的用法
【解题思路】 正确答案为D。把题干还原,很容易看出,本句使用的是have some difficulty (in) doing sth这个句型。
【失误警示】单项填空题中,命题人常常变化一些常见的短语或句法结构,使答题者不容易分辨。此种手段常导致考生机械地套用语法,进而作出错误的选择。做此类题目时要注意学会转换和还原,使之清晰明了。

    易错点四忽视有效附加信息
典例4 (2006年北京卷) —Which driver was to blame?
—Why, ____! It was the child’s fault, clear and simple. He suddenly came out between two parked cars.
A. both B. each C. either D. neither
【命题意图】 特定语境中不定代词的辨析
【解题思路】 正确答案为D。本题若只注意到which
driver was to blame 而忽略the child’s fault就会误选答案B或A。而最后一句表明,是小孩从两辆停着的车子中冲出,导致事故。
【失误警示】单项填空题的空白后有时附带一些文字信息,这些信息千万不能忽视,它们并非总是冗余信息。判断依据是,有此信息与无此信息句子意义完全不同。

易错点五 受母语干扰
典例5 (2007年江西卷)—I’m dead tired. I can’t walk any further, Jenny.
—____, Tommy. You can do it.
A. No problem B. No hurry
C. Come on D. That’s OK
【命题意图】 交际用语的用法
【解题思路】 正确答案为C。易误选A或D,因为汉语里常用“你会没问题的,你能行的”来安慰他人,但英语中通常用Come on, you can do it来鼓励他人。
【失误警示】由于母语在大脑中的根深蒂固,所以常常会对外语学习者大脑中尚不牢固的外语知识产生负面影响。命题者常利用这一点,制造陷阱。

实战演习
(定时:30mins,每小题1分,共45分,得分:_____分)
1. An accident happened at ________ crossroads a few meters away from _____ bank.
A. a; a B. / ; a
C. / ; the D. the; /
2. My ___ of this weekend’s activity is going out with some good friends.
A. idea B. opinion C. mind D. thought
3. David has won the first prize in singing; he is still very excited now and feels ___ desire to go to bed.
A. the worst B. more C. worse D. the least
4. If a shop has chairs ____ women can park their men, women will spend more time in the shop.
A. that B. which C. when D. where
5. The shopkeeper did not want to sell for ____ he thought was not enough.
A. where B. how C. what D. which
6. John, look at the time. ____ you play the piano at such a late hour?
A. Must B. Can C. May D. Need
7. —Don’t you think it necessary that he ____ to Miami but to New York?
—I agree, but the problem is __ he has refused to.
A. will not be sent; that
B. not be sent; that
C. should not be sent; what
D. should not send; what
8. Her sister has become a lawyer, __ she wanted to be.
A. who B. that C. what D. which
9. Mark was a student at this university from 1999 to 2003, ____ he studied very hard and was made Chairman of the Students’ Union.
A. during which time B. for which time
C. during whose time D. by that time
10. The poor young man is ready to accept _____ help he can get.
A. whichever B. however C. whatever D. whenever
11. With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth ____ each year.
A. is washing away B. is being washed away
C. are washing away D. are being washed away
12. When asked by the police, he said that he remembered ____ at the party, but not ____.
A. to arrive; leaving B. to arrive; to leave
C. arriving; leaving D. arriving; to leave
13. The storm left, ____ a lot of damage to this area.
A. caused B. to have caused
C. to cause D. having caused
14. —Did you tell Julia about the result?
—Oh, no, I forgot. I ___ her now.
A. will be calling B. will call
C. call D. am to call
15. ____, he talks a lot about his favorite singers after class.
A. A quiet students as he may be
B. Quiet student as he may be
C. Be a quiet student as he may
D. Quiet as he may be a student
16. The country life he was used to ____ greatly since 1992.
A. change B. has changed
C. changing D. have changed
17. The doctor advised Vera strongly that he should take a holiday, but ____ didn’t help.
A. it B. she C. which D. he
18. A poet and artist ___ coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting tomorrow afternoon.
A. is B. are C. was D. were
19. If it were not for the fact that she ____sing, 1 would invite her to the party.
A. couldn’t B. shouldn’t C. can’t D. might not
20. The workers will go on strike if the demands they ______put forward are turned down.
A. could B. would C. / D. had
21. Mary, _____ here —— everybody else, stay where you are.
A. come B. comes C. to come D. coming
22. —Which of the two ties would you like to take?
—I’d like to take ________, to give me a change sometimes.
A. both B. each C. either D. neither
23. Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class _____ he had to meet his uncle at the airport.
A. why B. that C. where D. because
24. We’re just trying to reach a point ________ both sides will sit together and talk.
A. where B. that C. when D. which
25. —I’m dead tired. I can’t walk any further, Jenny.
—_____, Tommy. You can do it.
A. No problem B. No hurry
C. Come on D. That’s OK
26. Mr. Green stood up in defense of the 16-year-old boy, saying that he was not the one_______.
A. blamed B. blaming
C. to blame D. to be blamed
27. _____ and I’ll get the work finished.
A. Have one more hour
B. One more hour
C. Given one more hour
D. If I have one more hour
28. —How long do you think it will be _____China sends a manned spaceship to the moon?
—Perhaps two or three years.
A. when B. until C. that D. before
29. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what ____ in my new job.
A. expected B. to expect
C. to be expected D. expects
30. We want to rent a bus which can _____ 40 people for our trip to Beijing.
A. 1oad B. hold C. fill D. support
31. —Could I have a word with you, mum?
—Oh dear, if you______.
A. can B. must C. may D. should
32. —Why don’t we take a little break?
—Didn’t we just have ______?
A. it B. that C. one D. this
33. Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, _____ I will always treasure.
A. that B. one C. it D. what
34. The home improvements have taken what little there is ____ my spare time.
A. from B. in C. of D. at
35. ____ modeling business is by no means easy to get into, the good model will always be in demand.
A. While B. Since C. As D. If
36. Sometimes it was a bit boring to work there because there wasn’t always ______ much to do.
A. such B. that C. more D. very
37. Mary kept weighing herself to see how much ___ she was getting.
A. heavier B. heavy
C. the heavier D. the heaviest
38. —Excuse me, but I want to use your computer to type a report.
—You ______ have my computer if you don’t take care of it.
A. shan’t B. might not
C. needn’t D. shouldn’t
39. He paid for a seat, when he ______ have entered free.
A. could B. would C. must D. need
40. —How about eight o’ clock outside the cinema?
—That _______ me fine.
A. fits B. meets C. satisfies D. suits
41. Happy birthday, Alice! So you have ___________ twenty-one already!
A. become B. turned C. grown D. passed
42. We didn’t plan our art exhibition like that but it ____ very well.
A. worked out B. tried out
C. went on D. carried on
43. Hospital staff burst into cheers after doctors completed a 20-hours operation to have ______ one-year-old twins at the head.
A. isolated B. separated C. divided D. removed
44. I ____ ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year.
A. will play B. have played C. played D. play
45. “The interest _________ be divided into five parts, according to the agreement made by both sides,” declared the judge.
A. may B. should C. must D. shall

Keys:
1-5 ADDDC 6-10 ABDAA 11-15 DCDBB 16-20 BAACC 21-25 AABAC 26-30 CBDBB 31-35 BCBCA 36-40 BAAAD 41-45 BABDD

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