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高考英语重点词汇辨析
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:英语词汇网 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-3-6 | 字体: |

receive和accept用法辨析

[观察分析]
1. I received a letter from him this morning. 早上我收到了他的来信。
2. We received much help from our teachers. 我们获得了老师很多的帮助。
3. The scientist received a warm welcome .那个科学家受到了热烈欢迎。
4. He received a good education at school.他在学校里得到了良好的教育。
5. He accepted a present from his friend.他接受了他朋友的礼物。
6. Will you accept his apology? 你会接受他的道歉吗?
7. I can’t accept you as my assistant.我不同意你做我的助手。
8. I accept your offer.我接受你的提议。
9. The new theory is widely accepted. 这个新的理论被广泛接受。
10. He received many gifts ,but he did not accept all of them. 他收到了很多礼物,但是他并没有收下。
[思考归纳]
两者的意思有何区别?
receive 指客观上________;accept指主观上_________.

believe和believe in 用法不一样

[观察分析]
1. Long ago ,people believed that the world was flat.很久以前,人们相信地球是扁平的。
2. I can quite believe you .我很信得过你。
3. We believe him to be honest.我们相信他是诚实的。
4. I don’t believe in fate. 我不相信命运。
5. Do you believe in the Bible?你相信《圣经》吗?
6. I don’t believe what you have said because I don’t believe in you .我不信你说的话,因为我不信任你。
[思考归纳]
believe 和believe in 在意义上有何区别?
believe一般是指相信某人_______;believe in 一般指_______某人或是对某种理论的____。

情态动词+have done结构的含义及其运用

[观察分析]
1. You should have finished your homework earlier.你应该早就把作业做好了的。
2. It is wet on the ground .It must have rained last night.地上湿的。昨晚一定下雨了。
3. He is a successful businessman. In the past years, he must have worked very hard.他是一个成功的商人。在过去的几年里,他一定工作很努力。
4. There is no light in his house. He might have gone out.他的房子里没有灯光。他可能出去了。
5. You are late again. You shouldn’t have got up so late. 你又迟到了。你不该起的这么晚。
6. You needn’t have lent the book to him. He has got it.你不必把书给他的。他已经有了。
7. You are not an honest girl. You ought not to have told lies to others.你不是个诚实的女孩子。你不该跟别人撒谎。
8. Can’t you see the sign – No Smoking ? You ought not to have smoked here .你没看到那个标志吗?你不该抽烟的。
[思考归纳]
问题1.should / ought to / might /need 等 +have done 表示什么含义并如何运用?
回答:这样的句型常用来表示该做的/可能要做的/需要做的事情,没有做或发生的时候;他们的否定形式表示不该做或发生的事情而___#_____。
问题2. must +have done 什么含义如何运用?
回答:这样的句型常用于______:对于发生了或是已经发生的事情的猜测。

初探“with everyone clapping and having fun”结构

[观察分析]
1. With the spring coming, the trees turn green.春天来了,树木变绿了。
2. It’s impolite of you to sit with your feet pointing to others.你坐着用脚指着别人是不礼貌的。
3. He soon fell asleep with the lights still burning.他很快就睡着了,灯还亮着。
4. He lay on the grass ,with his eyes looking at the sky.他躺在草地上,眼睛看着天空。
5. The parents went out ,with their children staying at home .父母们都出去了,孩子们呆在家里。
[思考归纳]
1. 这个结构是如何构成的?
回答:with 是_____后面跟名词、代词做______,然后后面再跟动词的______形式做宾语_____。(因为宾语和动词在逻辑上有_______关系。)
2. 这个结构在句中表示什么意义?
回答:整个with结构在句中一般作______。例如方式状语、伴随状语等。

break up和 break down 用法辩异

[观察分析]
1. The ship broke up on the rocks.船触礁破裂了。
2. What broke up their friendship?谁破坏了他们的友谊。
3. Their marriage broke up . 他们的婚姻破裂了。
4. The police had to use force to broke up the crowd警察不得不用武力驱散人群。.
5. I am sorry to arrive late, but my car broke down halfway.抱歉我来晚了,我的车在半路上坏了。
6. The peace talks broke down without any agreement being reached.和谈失败了,没有达成任何协议。
7. I can’t have you breaking down in health.我不能让你的身体一天天垮下去。
8. Sugar and starch are broken down in the stomach.糖和淀粉会在胃里分解。
思考归纳
这两个词组分别是什么意思?
break up 是指__________________。例如解散人群,关系破裂、某物破碎等。
Break down 是指________________。例如车发生故障,计划等失败、身体垮了、分解物质等。

matter一词值得一探

[观察分析]
1. Is anything the matter ? 有什么问题吗?
2. You look a bit pale. What’s the matter with you ? 你看起来脸色有点苍白。 你怎么了?
3. There is an important matter I would like to talk to you about.有一件重要的事情我要跟你讨论。
4. It doesn’t matter whether it rains or not tomorrow.明天是否下雨没什么关系的。
5. It doesn’t matter that you came late. 你来晚了没什么关系。
6. Pain doesn’t matter to him. He is very strong.痛苦对他来说没什么关系。他身体很强壮。
7. It doesn’t matter to me which one you choose.对我来说你选择哪一个都 没关系。
8. No matter what you do ,I won’t forgive you.不管你做什么,我都不会原谅你。
9. No matter where he is ,I will find him.不管他在哪,我都会找到他。
10. No matter how late you come, I will wait for you .不管你来得有多晚,我都会等你。
[思考归纳]
1. 当matter 用作名词是何意义?如何使用?
回答:matter用作名词表示_________,一般在句中用的时候要在matter的前面加上________。
2. 当matter用作动词是和意义?如何使用?
回答:matter用作动词表示________,一般用于否定句或是_______;后面可以跟what ,where,when ,whether等引导的从句。
3. no matter 引导的是什么从句,在句中做什么成分,如何来构成。
no matter 一般引导__________从句,它后面可以跟_______________________等引导的从句

to one’s surprise 结构知多少

[观察分析]
1. To my surprise , he could escape from that big fire.令我惊讶的是,他能够从那场大火里逃脱出来。
2. To our great surprise, our team won the football match. 令我们很吃惊的是,我们队赢了足球赛。
3. To my joy, I could pass the difficult math exam.令我高兴的是,我能 通过那次很难的数学考试。
4. To his sorrow, his whole house was destroyed in the earthquake.令他悲伤的是,他的整座房子都在地震中毁掉了。
5. To her delight, she has got a new job in the company.令她高兴的是,她在那个公司里找到了一个新工作。
6. To our satisfaction, he could get the first prize in the competition. 我们满意的是,他在比赛中获得了一等奖。
7. To his amazement, his parents got him in such a short time.令他吃惊的是,他的父母亲在那么短的时间里就回来了。
8. To our excitement, we won the battle against the enemies.令我们激动的是,我们赢得了跟敌人的战斗。
[思考归纳]
to one’s surprise 类似的结构是怎样组成的,表示什么意义并如何使用?
回答:这样的词组一般是to 后面跟______ +表示感情或是情绪变化的____ ,通常表示某人的一种情绪和感情。一般在句中作 _________。

have sb do 与 have sb doing 用法比较

[观察分析]
1. The boss often has workers work for a long time.那个老板经常让他的工人长时间工作。
2. I would like to have him help me to finish the work.我想让他帮我完成那个工作。
3. Who would you rather have post this letter ? 你想让谁帮你寄这封信?
4. Don’t have the machine working all the time.不要让这个机器一直在运转。
5. It’s impolite to have him waiting outside for such a long time.让他在外面等这么长时间是不礼貌的。
6. You should be careful! Have the fire burning till tomorrow morning.你应该小心。让火一直燃烧到明天早上。
[思考归纳]
1. 两个词组分别是什么意义?
回答:have sb do 表示_________ 与 make /let sb do 近义;have sb doing 表示_________。与keep sb doing 近义。
2. 两个词组在用法上有什么不同?
回答:前者表示让某人去做了某事,所以用________(have sb to do );后者表示让某人一直做某事,所以用__________(have sb doing)

初探现在分词作状语

[观察分析]
1. He came running back to tell us the news. 他跑着回来告诉我们这个消息。
2. Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time.如果你整天玩,就会浪费你的宝贵时间。
3. He husband died ,leaving her with five children.她丈夫死了,留下了她和她的五个孩子。
4. Knowing that they were going there ,the students began to make preparations.当学生们知道他们要去那儿,就开始作准备了。
5. Not feeling very well, he went to see the doctor.因为感到不舒服,他就去看医生了。
6. Being ill ,he didn’t go to school.因为生病,他就没去上学。
7. Being afraid of his parents, he didn’t go downstairs.因为害怕他的父母,他没有下楼下楼。
8. Reading English novels , he seldom looks up new words in a dictionary.他看小说时很少少查字典。
[思考归纳]
1. 在句中为什么要用现在分词做状语?
回答:如果分词的逻辑主语和句中的主语是________,那就用现在分词在句中状语。
2. 现在分词在句中可以作什么状语?
回答:现在分词在句中可以做__________________________。

初探what引导的名词性从句

[观察分析]
1. What he said is true.他说的是真的。
2. What really interested him was to travel outside. 确实能吸引他的是出去旅游。
3. Do you know what we are going to do this evening.你知道今晚我们要做什么吗?
4. What he does is also what I want to do . 他做的就是我想做的。
5. You are welcome. That’s what I should do .你太客气了啊。是我应该做的。
6. He didn’t know what was the matter.他不知道发生什么了。
7. That’s what I am doing now.那就是我现在在做的事情。
8. Our city is not what it used to be .我们的城市再也不是过去的那个样子了。
[思考归纳]
`1. what引导的名词性从句在句中可做什么成分?
回答:what引导的名词性从句可以在句中做_______、________、________等。
2这些名词性从句中,什么时候用what来引导?
回答:首先,判断这些从句是什么从句,再结合中文意思,最后去分析从句的结构。What在句中可以作 ________、_________ 、________等。

in order to, in order that, so that 与 so as to用法探异

[观察分析]
1. People must eat in order to live.人们必须吃饭才能生活。
2. He works very hard in order to support his family.他努力工作是为了养家糊口。
3. He got up very early in order to catch the first bus.他起的很早是为了赶上头班车。
4. We should work hard in order that we can pass the exam.为了能通过考试,我们应该努力学习。
5. They talked in a very low voice in order that they could not be heard.为了不让别人听见他们讲话,他们用很低的声音讲话。
6. In order to get home on time, he didn’t rest on his way . 为了能够准时回到家,他在路上都没有休息。
7. We hurried so as to be in time.我们赶紧走,好及时到。
8. Speak clearly so that everybody can understand you .请说清楚点,这样每个人都能明白你。
9. He often told lies,so that no one believe him .他经常撒谎,都没人相信他。
10. Please wear your sun glasses so that the sun won’t burn your skin.请带上太阳眼镜,这样太阳就不会晒伤你的皮肤。
[思考归纳]
1. 这些词组是什么意思?
回答:这几个词组在意思是差不多的,都表示__________。
2. 这些词组在句中作什么成分?用法上有什么不同?
回答:这些词组在句中一般做状语,表示______。so as to 和 in order to 后面一般跟________;前者引导的动词不定式不可放在______,而后者引导的可放在______。so that 和in order that 一般后面跟_______。

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