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高考英语常用短语精解
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:英语词汇网 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-3-6 | 字体: |

1.to get on : (to enter, board)
【说明:】to get on(搭乘,上车) 动词get的用法很多,常常在后面接用各种不同的介系词或副词而形成意义不同的习语。这里的on是介系词,后面的bus和subway用作它的受词。如果on作副词用,则有进步,相处甚好,与年事已长的意思。
【例:】
(1) I always get on the bus at 34th Street.
我总是在34街搭乘公共汽车。
(2) William gets on the subway at the same station every morning.
威廉每天早晨在同一车站搭乘地下火车。
2.to get off : (to leave, descend from)
【说明:】to get off (下车)与上面的get on相反。Get off也有好些其它的意义,如寄出,离开等。下车也可以用alight from或get out of a carriage或motor car, 不过下电车或公共汽车多用get off .
【例:】
(1) Helen got off the bus at 42nd Street.
海伦在42街下公共汽车。
(2) At what station do you usually get off the subway?
你通常在那一站下地下火车?
3.to put on: (to place on oneself-said particularly of clothes)
【说明:】
to put on (穿,戴)特别指穿衣服、穿鞋、戴帽、戴眼镜也用这个成语。英文中还有wear和dress二字也是穿的意思。可是wear是继续的动作,表示穿着的状态,而put on是一时的动作。下面两个句子都是错的:
I shall wear my overcoat before I go out (应用put on). In such cold weather I put on my overcoat all day (应用wear).dress的意思是
①put clothes on后面的受词一定是人,如dress a child, dress oneself, be dressed in white,
②put on clothes, vk Get up and dress quickly. (快点起来穿好衣服。)
【例:】
(1) Mary put on her hat and left the room.
玛丽戴上她的帽子就离开这屋子。
(2) Why is John putting on his hat and coat?
约翰为什么穿衣戴帽呢?
4.to take off : (to remove-said also of clothes)
【说明:】to take off (脱去)与put on 的意义相反,指脱去衣物鞋帽.民可以用put off, 但较不通用。
【例:】
(1) John took off his hat as he entered the room.
约翰在这屋时脱下他的帽子。
(2) Is Helen taking off her coat because it is too warm in the room?
海伦是不是因为室内太暖和而脱去她的外衣呢?
5.to call up: (to telephone)
【说明:】to call up (打电话给……)后面一定要有受词,也就是接电话的人。如果受词是代名词的话,常插在call与up 之间。
【例:】
(1) I forgot to call up Mr. Jones yesterday although I promised to call him up exactly at three o’clock.
我昨天忘记打电话给钟斯先生,虽然我答应了在三点钟的时候打电话给他的。
(2) Did anyone call me up while I was out?
我出去的时候有人打电话来找我吗?
6.to turn on : (to start, begin)
【说明:】to turn on (扭开,打开)指扭开电灯,电炉,电扇,煤气等的按钮或开关,以及自来水的水龙头等而言。开电灯也可以用put on the light.
【例:】
(1) Please turn on the light. This room is dark.
请你扭开电灯,这房间太黑暗了。
(2) Someone turned on the radiator in this room while we were out.
我们外出时,有人把房内的电炉扭开了。
7.to turn off : (to stop, terminate extinguish)
【说明:】
to turn off (关闭,停止)指扭熄电灯,关闭无线电、自来水等。关灯也可以用put out the light.
【例:】
(1) Please turn off the light. We do not need it now.
请把电灯关了,我们现在不需要它。
(2) Shall I turn off the radio or are you still listening to it?
我可以把收音机关掉吗,你是不是还要收听呢?
8.right away : (immediately, at once, very soon)
【说明:】right away (立刻,马上)为美国口头语,没有immediately与at once正式, 系一副词片语,与right now (exactly now )的意思相仿。
【例:】
(1) She says that dinner will be ready right away.
她说晚餐马上就准备好了。
(2) Can William come to my office right away?
威廉能够立刻就到我的办公室来吗?

9.to pick up : (to take-especially with fingers)
【说明:】to pick up (拾起,拣起)尤指用手指把东西拿起业而言。To pick up还有很多 其它的用法。如
①让人搭便车:
The motorist picked up a couple of servicemen along the highway .
(这个乘汽车的人在公路上让两个军人搭乘便车。)
②听会,
自然学会,(言语,游戏等):
He never studied French; what he knows he picked up while living in France.
(他从来没有学过法文;他所知道的是他住在法国的时候听会的。)
③捉住,逮捕,萍水相逢便行订交,选出:
I picked up London last night.
(昨晚我在无线电听到了伦敦的播音。)
【例:】
(1) John Picked up the newspaper which was on his desk.
约翰把书桌上的报纸拿了起来。
(2) Why didn’t you pick up that pencil which lay on the floor?
你为什么不把地板上的那枝铅笔拾起来呢?
10.at once: (immediately, very soon, right away)
【说明:】at once (立刻,马上)为一级通用的副词片语,也可以作为同时(simultaneously) 解,如:
This book is at once interesting and structive.
(此书既有趣又有益。)
【例:】
(1) He asked me to come to his office at once.
他请我立刻就到他的办公室去。
(2) I want you to send this telegram at once.
我希望你马上把这电报发出去。  
11.to wait for : (to expect, await)
【说明:】to wait for (等候,期待)可以说等于await, wait通常都作不及物动词用,如果后面有受词,切不可少用介系词for await为及物动词,后面不可用介系词,但是没有wait普遍。Wait也可用作及物动词,如:①wait one’s chance或opportunity(等机会);②Don’t wait dinner for me.(晚饭不要等我)
【例:】
(1) We will wait for you on the corner of Broadway and 86th Street.
我们将在百老汇及86街转角处等你
(2) We waited for him for more than an hour and finally left.
我们等了他一个多小时,然后才离开。
12.at last : (finally)
【说明:】at last(最后,终于)为一副词片语,与at first意义相反。也可以用at long last, 可是语气较强,而且有点英国味道。
【例:】
(1) We waited and waited and at last John arrived.
 我们等了又等,后来约翰终于来了。
(2) Has he finished that work at last?
 他最后把那工作做完了吗?
13.as usual : (as always, customarily)
【说明:】as usual(照常,照例,仍然)作副词用,其意为as is (was ) usual 和往常一般。usual 是形容词,不可用usually.
【例:】
(1) Henry is late for class again as usual.
亨利像平常一样上课又迟到了。
(2) As usual Helen won first prize in the swimming contest.
海伦在游泳比赛中仍然获胜。
14.to find out: (to get information, discover, learn)
【说明:】to find out(得悉,发现,查明)与find略有不同,find out指故意去寻而寻出。
【例:】
(1) I was unable to find out the name of the man who called.
我想不出那个打电话来的人的名字。
(2) Will you please try to find out for me what time that train arrives?
能否请你替我查明火车什么时候到达?
15.to look at : (do direct the eyes toward, watch)
【说明:】to look at (眼睛望着,注视)亦可解释为考虑,调查(consider, investigate),如:
The judge said that he would look at the matter of the widow’s right to the property.  
法官说他将考虑寡妇对这财产的权利。)look一般都用作不及物动作,与许多不同的介系词结合而形成各种意义不同的片误。Look at 与see 并不相同,see的意思是看到,往往是无意的,上面两句里的look at 都不可改用see。
【例:】
(1) The teacher told us to look at the blackboard and not at our books.
教师教我们注视黑板,不要看着我们的课本。
(2) I like to walk in the park and look at the stars at night.
晚上我喜欢在公园里散步,仰望着天上的群星。

16.to look for : (to search for, seek)
【说明:】to look for (寻觅,搜寻)也有期望,盼望的意思,如I don’t look for much profit
 from the business. (我并不期望从生意中得到优厚的利益。)
【例:】(1) He has spent an hour looking for the pen which he lost.
 他已经花了一个钟头去寻找他失去的钢笔了。
 (2) I have lost my gloves. Will you help me look for them?
 我的手套丢了,请你帮我找找好吗?
17.all right : (satisfactory, correct)
【说明:】all right (满意,可以,没关系)用作形容词,和美国人的
 意思相仿,为日常口头语。有很多的英美人用all right, 可是也有许多人认为
 不该用它。
【例:】(1) He said that it would be all right to wait in this office for him.
 他说在这办公室里等他就好了。
 (2) Will it be all right with you if I give you that money tomorrow instead of today?
 如果我把今天应该给你的那笔钱明天给你,可以吗?
18.right here, right there, right now, etc : (exactly here, exactly there, etc.)
【说明:】right here(就在这儿),right there(就在那儿),right now(现在立刻)为日常
 口头语,right是副词,它的意思是exactly precisely, just,或immediately,把here,
 there, now等的范围缩小了。还有right away与right off都是立刻,马上的意思。
【例:】(1) He said that he would meet us right here on this corner.
 他说他将在这转角处跟我们碰面。
 (2) Right then I saw very clearly that he was not telling the truth.  
那时我就看得很清楚,他没有说实话。
 (3) Let’s do it right now.
 让我们现在就做这件事吧!
19.little by little : (gradually, by degrees, slowly)
【说明:】little by little(逐渐,慢慢地)为副词片语,指每次都是一点,因而有逐渐,
 慢慢地的意思。
【例:】(1) If you study regularly each day, little by little your vocabulary of English words
 will increase.
 如果你每天有规律地学习,你的英文字汇将逐渐增加。
 (2) His health seems to be improving little by little.
 他的健康似乎慢慢地好转了。
20.tired out : (extremely tired)
【说明:】tired out(非常疲倦)为形容词片语,tired是由过去分词转成的形容词,表示
 由于精力被消耗得很多,因而觉得疲倦。Out是副词作thoroughly, completely,
 entirely解,用以形容tired.
【例:】(1) I have worked very hard today and am tired out.
 我今天很辛苦地工作,所以累极了。
 (2) He was tired out after his long trip to California.
 至加利福尼亚州长途旅行归来后,他觉得非常疲倦。

21.to call on : (to visit)
【说明:】to call on (拜望,访问)意思是过访,小竭。On也可upon后面的受词一定是人,如果访问某一个地方,则用call at. Call on还有好些别的意思,如
He called on all his friends to help him.
这儿的call on应解释为要求,求助于。
【例:】
(1) Last night several friends called on us.
昨晚有几个朋友来看我们。
(2) How many salesmen call on Mr. Evans every day?
每天有多少推销员拜访伊文思先生呢?

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