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人教版英语教材重难点:高一Unit 17 Famous women
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:本站整理 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2006-6-12 | 字体: |
Unit17 Famous women
一、课文背景知识
本单元的话题是世界杰出女性
居里夫人(1877-1934)
原子能时代的开创者之一,世界上第一个两次诺贝尔奖获得者,二十世纪最有声望的女人—居里夫人。
癌,这个吞噬人们生命的怪物,在人类历史的长河中,曾几何时奔荡不羁,象战争的罪犯,给人们留下痛苦和死亡。人们无时无刻不在寻找同它斗争的武器。可是,一个世纪又一个世纪地过去了,直到二十世纪初,波兰伟大的科学家玛丽.居里——斯克洛道夫斯卡和她的丈夫埃尔.居里发现了一个新的放射性元素——镭。它可以破坏被病毒侵蚀了的细胞,然后构成新的、健康的细胞组织。这样,镭就成了治癌的有利武器。
居里夫人历经磨难,但意志坚强,且鄙视名利。她光辉的一生足以照亮她所生活的那个时代。她给我们以深刻的教益和启迪。一次,有一位报社记者前来采访这位科学家,想把她的事迹报道出去。她坚定地回答:“在科学上重要的是研究出来的‘东西’,不是研究者的‘个人’。她还说,”人必须有耐心,特别是要有信心”,我们应该相信,自己对于某种事业有特殊的才干,并且应该不惜任何代价来完成这个事业。”
有名的学者爱因斯坦曾经这样评价居里夫人:“在我所认识的所有著名人物里面,居里夫人是唯一不为盛名所颠倒的人。”
Mother Teresa(1990-1997)
一位天使英雄(angel hero),一生为普通民众行善的修女,有一段评价为证——“on September5, 1997, late in the evening around 9:30 p.m., Mother Teresa goes to Heaven in the Mother house in Calcutta. Totally finished and worn out, as she had given herself totally, wholeheartedly, freely and unconditionally to the poorest of the poor, for the love of jesus."”
Helen Thayer
著名的探险家和作家(Adventurer and author),第一位独立到北极,和撒哈拉沙漠的女性(first solo woman to make the North Pole trekking, the first woman to walk across the Sahara Desert)。
Thayer 有很多精彩的话语,既反映了他的真实心态,也激励着千万人不畏艰难挑战人生。这里仅列举几则——”push on even when it seems impossible." ," A goal is only a dream if you don't have a plan." ;"  My journey was like life itself," " We all have our problems as we traver to our goals, but we cai all reach our goals just as I did, one step at a time, never giving up on ourselves. If we reach for the top and believe we can do it, we can all make our dreams come true."; "Age is no barrier to your dreams and goals," ;"We regard our bodies as finely tuned machines that have to be maintained," "Once people start thinking they're over the hill, they are." ;" I like to see what's on the other side of the hill." 。
Oprah Winfrey
美国著名电视节目主持人( a successful TV personality,entertainment executive ),她出身黑人家庭,但事业卓群,她的娱乐节目有极高的艺术性,也富有浓郁的人情味,因而被誉为“荧屏常青树”,获得系列殊荣,“Oprah Winfrey was named one of the 100 Most Influential People of the 20th century by Time Magazine,and in 1998 received a lifetime Achievement Award from the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences。
When Forbes magazine published its list of America'a billionaires for the year 2003, it disclosed that Oprah Winfrey was the first African-American woman to become a billionaire.
二、疑难详解
1. Alone in Antarctica 独自在南极
[问]alone的含义和用法是怎样的?
[答]作为形容词,along 意为“单独地,独自地,独一无二的”, 一般用作表语,用在名词或代词之后时为“只有,唯有,仅仅”等, alone还可用作副词,意为“单独;独自”,例如:He was alone in the house .他独自一人在家里。
I am not alone in thinking so. 并非只有我才这样想的。
Smith alone knew what happened. 只有史密斯知道发生了什么事。
[习惯用法]all alone独自一人,孤零零地; leave sb. (sth.) alone 听其自然,不要去管,让某人(某物)独自留在那儿;let sb. (sth). alone 听其自然,不要去管,让某人(某物)独自留在那儿;leave severely alone 绝对不理,不介入;敬而远之;不再打交道,不再去干;let alone 至于……更不必说;let sb. (sth.)alone 随它去;不干涉(打扰);stand alone in 在……方面独一无二。
2. What else, but a journey at the opposite and of the world. Antarctica. 除了在世界的另一端即南极旅行,还能做什么别的呢?
[问]此句中but怎么理解?
[答]but在此句中作介词,相当于except,意为“除……之外”,又如:no one but me 除我以外没别人
No one but she saw the prowler.除她以外没有一个人看见那个行窃者。传统的语法学家考虑当but用于表示例外的意思时应该用什么形式的代词,比如No one but I (或者No one but me )has read it 。 有人认为but在这种句子中是个连词,因此应该使用主格I。然而虚度语法雪茄的讨论有些不一致,即当but短语出现在句子末尾时用宾格me比较合适,如No one has read it but me (除我以外没有人读过它)。同时这种结构前置处理的重要性是值得考虑的,并且不会被认为是不正确的。此处,but还可用作连词表示转折,用作副词意为“几乎,仅仅”,如:I was going to write, but I lost your address. 我本来要写信的,可是把你的地址弄丢了。(连词)
The job is all but finished!这工作差不多完成了!(副词)
3. My dog team weren't with me to pull my sled. 我没有群狗来为我拉雪橇。
[问]本句的主语是my dog team 为什么谓语动词用复数weren't?
[答]team形式上是单数,但有时候表达复数的含义,谓语动词用复数,在语法上这称做“主谓一致”。试比较:
Our team is sure to win this game. 我们的球队肯定会赢得这场比赛。
our team are taking exercise now. 我们的队员正在训练。
family, group, crowd, class, government, company, population  等作主语时,也应根据“意义一致”的原则,按所表达的含义确定其谓语动词形式。
4. Another journey of challenge and danger was about to began. 又一次挑战和危险的旅行即将开始。
[问]be about to do sth. 是什么意思?
[答]be about to 是一种将来时表达法,表示最近的将来,意思为“正要……”“即将……”。需要注意的是,若句子中有具体的时间状语则不能用be about to, 而要用be going to, 如:
When I saw Mary, she was about to get on the bus. 我看到玛丽时,她正要上车。
Hurry up!They are going to finish the work in five minutes.  快点!他们五分钟就做完了。
此外,“be to do sth,"亦可表示“按计划或那派将要做某事”。如:
We are to have to meeting this afternoon. 我们今天下午要开会。
5. I had travelled only two hours one day when the winds incresed so much that I had to put my tent up before the winds became too strong. 一天我刚走了两小时,这时风变得太大,我不得不在强风到来之前搭起帐篷。
[问]此句中的when 是什么用法?so much that 是什么意思?
[答}when用作连词,意为“正在……的时候”(=at the very moment),如,We were about to start when it began to rain. 我们正要出发。这时候就开始下雨了。so... that 意为“如此……以致……”与such...that同义,但so是副词,修饰形容词或副词。例如:He was so hardworking that he was praised by the teacher.他很勤奋,所以受到老师的表扬。
His arms were so long he could touch the ceiling. 他手臂很长,能摸到天花板。
The weather was so fine that we all went out for a walk.
天气这么好,我们都去散步了。
6. On November 12 the storm lay down. 十一月十二日哪天暴风平息了。
[ 问]此句中lay down是什么意思。
[答]lie down意为 “躺下”, “……平息下来”等。例如:
He always lies down on the ground whenever he stops. 他一停下来就总是躺在地上。
Their quarrel finally lay down. 他们的争吵终于平息下来了。
The winds and waves on the sea will soon lie down. 海上马上就会风平浪静。
7. I had fallern into a hole and was hanging on the ropes tied to the sled.我掉进了一个窟窿,正悬在连接着雪橇的绳子上 。
[问]tied to the sled 是什么结构?在句子中有何作用?
[答]这是一个过去分词短语在句中作定语,相当于一个定语从句,修饰名词ropes, 过去分词短语作定语时常位于被修饰的名词之后。又如:
Today's computers are of much difference from tomorrow. 今早发出的信件她明天就可收到了。
而单个的过去分词作定语常位于名词之前,如:
The cold wind was blowing through a broken window. 寒风从破碎的窗子吹了进来。
8. If I keep lying on the ice. I would soon die. 如果我继续躺在冰上,我会冻死的。
[问]keep doing sth. 是何意?
[答]keep doing sth. 意为“继续做某事”,如:
The owner of the shop kept talking all the time. 店主一直在说话。
It kept raining for three days. 雨连续下了三天。
[辨析]keep doing sth. 表示连续不断的动作或同一动作持续的状态,而keep on doing sth. 意为:继续做,反复做某事”,强调动作的重复性,如:
Why do you keep on asking such silly questions?你干嘛老问这样的傻问题呢?
She kept on working although she was tired. 她尽管很累但仍继续干活。
值得一提的是,keep on 后只能接表示动作的-ing形式如talking,walking, crying等,而不能接表示静止状态的-ing 形式如standing, lying, sitting,sleeping等。如我们不可以说: He kept on standing for half an hour. 但我们可以说:He kept standing for half an hour.
9. I had to make a decision. Wait to get better or give up ?我必须做出决定,是等待情况好转还是放弃呢?
[问]make a decision 怎么理解?give up, give in 和give out 有何区别?
[答]make a decision 意为“决定下来,作出决定,下决心”等,与decision连用的短语还有:came to a decision 做出决定; arrive at a decision 做出决定;reach a decision 做出决定;give a decision for 判决对……有利;give a decision against 判决对……不利;give a  decision against判决对……不利;leave ... to the decision of 由……来决定(某事);with decision 断然,等等。
give up和give in都有“让步;放弃”的含义;give up指行为或努力受挫或别的原因儿童主动放弃,可用作及物东西,跟名词或v.-ing作宾语;也可作不及物动词;give in 指不再坚持自己的行为或观点等,而按别人的要求去做,一般作不及物动词;give out意为“用完;耗尽;体力不支”,是不及物动词。例如:The wind was strong and the waves were big, so he had to give up attempting /his attempt to swim the channel. 风急浪高,他只好放弃横渡海峡的打算。
We must under no circumstances give up halfway. 我们绝不能半途而废。
As neither of the two sides would give in, the agreement fell through. 由于双方都不肯让步,所以没能达成协议。
10. In her television shows she makes if possible to talk about great moment and difficulties in people's lives.
她在电视节目中使得谈论人民生活中的辉煌时刻和难题成为可能。
[问]怎么粉刺此句结构?怎样理解此句中的it?
[答]make...possible  意为“使……成为可能”, it在此用作形式宾语,真正的宾语是动词不定式短语 to talk about great moment and difficulties in people's lives, 形容词possible 作宾补。又如:
If yuo work hard, you will make a good sailor. 如果你肯努力,你将成为一个好水手。
Science and technology have made it possible for farmers to produce more grain. 科学技术已经使农民有可能生产出更多的粮食。
常用于这个句型的动词还有: find, think, consider等;
As he is an old friend of mine, I dind it difficult ot refuse him.出于他是我的老朋友,我觉得很难拒绝他。
Do you think it neccessary to say a few words at the meeting?你认为有必要在会上讲几句话吗?
He feels it his duty to help others. 他感到帮助别人是他的责任。
11. She has helped thousands of men and women come to terms with things that bother them and that they could not talk about with others. 她帮助成千上万的人对使他们心烦的,不能与别人谈论的事情采取将就态度。
[问]come to terms with是什么意思?
[答]come to terms with意为“甘心忍受(不愉快的处境);屈服;妥协;达成协议;接受条件,对……采取将就态度”, 如:He always comes to terms with his existence. 他总是安分守纪;与term连用的短语还有:at term到期终时,到期;be in terms 在谈判(交涉)中;be on intimate terms with  与……关系密切;bring sb. to terms 使某人接受条件,使某人屈服(就范);during one's term of office 在任职期间;for term of (one's)life 一辈子;in any term 无论如何;在任何情况下;in black and white terms   白纸黑字;毫不含糊;in general terms 概括地,笼统地;in high terms 极力称赞;in plain terms 简单说来,坦白地说;in practical terms 实际上; in terms在谈判协商中;in terms of 依……,据……;从……方面;从……角度来讲;换算,折合;以……为单位;关于,在……方面,就……来说; in the long term从长远观点来看; in the short term 就眼前来说;keep on good (friendly)terms with sb. 与某人保持良好(友谊)关系,交朋友;keep terms with sb. 和……继续谈判,与某人保持友好关系; not on any terms (on no terms )决不,无论如何不;on equal terms with 和……条件相同,与……平等相处;on one's own terms 按照自己的条件(价钱);按照自己的主张
12. Being black and a woman made life even more difficult in American at that time. (作为)黑人和妇女使得当时在美国的生活更加艰难。
[问]being 是什么意思?being black and a woman 在句中起什么作用?
[答]句中的being 作“作为,由于是……”解/
Being a hero made him very proud. 作为一个英雄他非常自豪。
Being a  teacher, she is always strict with her pupils. 由于她是一位老师,她对学生总是要求严格。
Being black and a woman 在句中作主语,-ing形式可用作句子的主语, 又如;
Jumping from somewhere high is very dangerous. 从高处跳是很危险的。
Living in big cities is not always so pleasant. 生活在大城市并不总是很愉快的。
Her father showed her how hard work and discipline could head her to self -improve -ment.她父亲告诉她辛勤的努力和严格的纪律能使她走上自我完善的道路。
[问]怎么理解 lead to? self-improvement 是什么意思?
[答]lead to“导致,通向,使……走上”,又如:All roads lead to Rome. (谚语)条条大路通罗马。
He led us to his home. 他把我们带到他家。
It is only hard work that can usually lead you to success.只有努力工作才能导致成功。
self-improvement 是个复合词,意为“自我提高,自我完善”,self-意为“自我……”,又如:self-buried adj. 自埋的,自然力量掩埋的;self-care n. 自我照顾;self-centered  adj. 自我为中心的,自私自利的;self-clean-ing adj. 自洁式的,自动清洗
的;self-control n. 克己,自我控制,等等。
14. Oprah listende to her father and a few years later she won a college scholarshilp that allowed her to go the university. 欧普拉听了她父亲的话,几年后她便获得大学的奖学金,使她能进入大学学习。
[问]如何理解that allow her to go to university?
[答]that allow her to go to universitys是that引导的定语从句,修饰scholarship, allow sb. to do sth n. 意为“允许某人做某事”,如:
Allow me to introduce Miss Mary. 请允许我介绍一下玛丽小姐。
The government servants aren't allowed to avvept rewards.公务员不得接受酬谢。
We don't allow such things to be done. 我们不容许有这种事情发生。
Are we allowed to use the basin by the side of the cupboard?我们能使用柜子边上的洗脸盆吗?
Allow还有“承认”的意思,如:
We must allow that he is a good teacher. (We must allow him to be a good teacher.)我们应当承认他是位好老师。
We haveto allow five per cent of our profit for tear and wear.我们必须将所得利润的酌留百分之五作为损耗费。
15. In 1971, she began working part -time on a radio programme. 1971年她开始在一个广播节目中做零活。
[问]working part -time 是什么意思?
[答]working part -time意为"兼职的,部分时间的,非专职的”,其反义词为full-time,意为“专职的,全部时间的”,例如:
Doing cleaning is her part-time job.做清洁是她的兼职工作。
Are you teaching part-time or full-time?你是兼职教员还是专职教员?
Many college student are doing part -time jobs. 许多大学生都有临时工作。
What's yor full-time job two years ago?两年前你的专职工作是什么?
三、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展
[概述]
1. 重点单词和词组
inspire,generous,cheerful,mean,miserable,dishonest,stormy,threaten,somehow,regret, extreme,climate,value,admire,come to terms with,brother,frame,primary,hardship,graduation 等。
2. 重点语法:
本单元的语法重点是学习“主谓一致”的有关知识。主语和谓语动词保持一致是英语的重要特点。若主语是单数名词(代词),谓语也应用单数,反之则用复数,此所谓语法一致。如:But changes were just around the corner.
有些名词形式为单数但表达复数意义,谓语仍用复数,如team, police, public, people 等;有些名词形式为复数但表达单数意义,谓语动词应用单数,如news, maths, politics, physics 等,称为意义一致。
The boy's team has some good players, but the girls'is a better team.
My dog team weren't with me to pull my sled.
若有多个名词作主语,应按“就近一致”的原则,即谓语动词的形式取决于靠它最近的名词(主语)。例如:
There is a pen, a radio and some books on the desk.
There are some books, a pen and a radio on the desk.
[经典解析]
例;1. Sandy could do nothing but ______ to his  teacher that he was wrong.
    A. admit    B. admitted    C. admitting    D. to admit
简析:本题考查 but 作介词的用法。do nothing but do sth. 意为“只好做某事”,but 后接动词原形,故答案为A。
[高考透视]介词 but 相当于 except,意为“除了”,常与 all, everything, nothing 等不定式代词或等疑问词连用。常见搭配有 nothing but (只有);do nothing but do something(只好做某事);cannot but do sth. = can't choose but do sth.(不得不做某事);have no choice but to do sth.(别无选择只好做某事);can't help but do sth.(禁不住做某事)等。
例:2.—Is John coming by train?
      —He should, but he ____ not. He likes driving his car.
    A. must    B. can     C. need    D. may
简析:答案为D。根据“He likes driving his car.”可看出 “他也许不会(乘火车来)”。B项虽然语法正确,但不符合语境。从答语看来,说话人并没有十足的把握。
[高考透视] must 语气非常肯定,常用于陈述句,may 语气不太肯定,而 can 用在否定句中表示否定的推测或判断,意为“一定不,不可能”等。
例:3. We are going to the bookstore in John's car. You can come with us ______ you can meet us there later.
    A. but    B. and    C. or    D. then
简析:本题考查并列连词的含义及用法。but 表示“转折”,and 表示“并列”,or 表示“选择”,then 表示“承接”。分析题意可知 come with us 和 meet us there later 这两个动作既不是转折关系,也不是并列关系,也不是承前启后,而是表示选择,即二者可选其一,故答案为C。
例:4. Since you have repaired my TV set, ______ is no need for me buy a new one.
    A. it    B. there    C. this    D. that
简析:本题考查 there be 句型,根据句意“我没必要买新的”不难确定正确答案为B。
[高考透视]“there be” 结构中的动词 be 可有各种时态形式,并可与助动词、情态动词或连系动词一起构成谓语,如:
There will (is going to) be a meeting on Monday. 星期一有个会议。
There has been much talk about the matter. 关于这件事已经说得够多了。
There must (might ought to) be a person waiting for you. 一定(可能、应该)有人在等你。
There seems to be bo more time now. 看来没时间了。
There happened to be an accident on the road. 路上碰巧发生了事故。
例:5. The parkers bought a new house but ______ will need a lot of work before they can move in.
    A. they    B. it    C. one    D. which
简析:本题容易受汉语的干扰,误以为“他们需要做很多工作才能搬进去”而选A,误以为 which 在此引导定语从句而选D。正确答案应为B,代词 it 用来替代可数名词 a new house。
四、单词详解。
 1. inspire [in5spaiE]vt. 鼓舞,感动,激发,启示,使生灵感,产生//vt. 吸入,赋予灵感。
例:a leader who inspires by example. 一位身体力行的领袖。
I was inspired to work harder than ever before. 我受激励比以往任何时候都更加努力地工作。
a philosophy which inspired revolution 一个引起革命的哲学思想。
The falling leaves inspired her with sadness .落叶触动了她的伤感。
a teacher who inspired admiration and respect. 博得欣赏和尊敬的教师。
[记忆技巧]inspired 受到鼓舞的;inspiring 鼓舞人心的
[常用词组]inspire a new thought into sb. 将新思想灌输给某人/  inspire sb. with courage 鼓起某人的勇气/inspire sth. in sb. 使某人产生某种感情/激发某人的某种感情/inspire sb. with sth. 使某人产生某种感情/激发某人某种感情/inspire sth. into sb. 把某种思想灌输给某人
2. generous [5dVenErEs]adj. 慷慨的,大方的,有雅量的
例:He is very generous ---he often buys things for other people.她很大方,经常为别人来买东西。
The young heiress was so generous that she gave all her money away in a couple of years. 年轻的女继承人过于大方以致不到几年的功夫就把钱都送掉了。
He is generous with his money.他花钱大方。
a generous helping of meat and vegetable 一份丰富的肉和蔬菜。
[常用词组]a generous gift 大方的礼物/generous harvest 丰收/generous field 肥沃的土地/generous colour 浓颜色/generous wine 气味浓郁的酒/a generous meal 丰盛的一餐
3. cheerful [5tFiEful]adj.愉快的, 高兴的,兴致高的;精神愉快的
例:a cozy, cheerful room 舒适的,令人愉快的房间
He is cheerful in spite of his illness. 他虽然有病但是情绪很好。
That's a cheerful remark. [反]听了真叫日呢莫名其妙。
[记忆技巧]cheerfully adv. 高高兴兴的;cheerfulness n. 高兴,快活;cheer n. 愉快,欢呼;v. (使)快活,(对)欢呼
4. mean [mi:n]adj. 低劣的,卑鄙的;普通的;吝啬的;简陋的;平均的,惭愧的,不舒服的
例:Peter's father was very mean; he never gave Peter any new clothes. 彼得的父亲很小气,他从不给彼得添新衣服。
He's no mena teacher. 他可不是个差劲的教师。
I mean the red one, not the green one. 我是指那个红的,不是绿的。
I mean what I say. 我说到做到。
I meant to give you this book todya, but I forgot. 我本来打算今天给你这本书的,可是我忘了。
I believe he is meant to be a  soldier.我相信他天生是要当军人的。
The dark coluds mean rain. 乌云是下雨的征兆。
My friends mean a lot to me. 我的朋友对我来说非常重要。
You are meant to leave a tip. 你得留下小费。
The opinions of the critics meant nothing to him. She meant so much to me. 对他来说, 批评家们的意见没有任何意义。她对于我来说那么重要。
She mens well, despite her blumders. 她用意是好的,尽管她因为无知犯了大错误。
What do you mean by saying that?你那样说是什么意思?
[记忆技巧]扩展记忆法:vt. 意谓,想要,预定;vi. 用意,有意义
[常用词组]be mean to do 照道理(照规矩)应该/Do you mean to say...?你的意思是说……吗?难道……吗?/What do you mean by...?
你这是什么意思?(=What on earth do you mena by...?)你怎么胆敢……?你怎么竟然……?/mean ill (to sb. /by sb.)(对某人)存心不良,(对某人)出于好意;(对某人)抱着帮忙的态度。/a mean motive 卑微的动机。
5. warm-hearted adj.热诚的,热心的
例:tense muscles 绷紧的肌肉
The players were tense at the start of the game. 队员们在比赛开始时很紧张。
[常用词组]at prime tense 最初,起先,立即/the perfect tense 完成时/the present (past, future )tense现在(过去,将来)时/the progressive (continuous)tense 进行时
7. miserable [5mizErEbl]adj.  痛苦的,悲惨的,可怜的
例:The child is cold, hungry, and tired, so of course he's feeling miserable. 这孩子又冷,又饿,又疲劳,当然他感到很痛苦。
Before liberation , most peasants lived a miserable life. 解放前多数农民过着悲惨的生活。
It's raining again -what miserable weather! 又下雨了,多烦人的天气!
[常用词组]a miserable failure 一败涂地 a miserable climate 令人非常难受的气候/a  miserable trick一个卑劣的把戏/miserable handicraft 蹩脚的工艺品
8. dishonest [dis5Cnist]adj. 不正直;不诚实的;欺诈的
例:The dishonest goverment official was publicly disgraced. 那个不诚实的政府官员被公开贬斥。
get money by dishonest means 非法赚钱,得不义之财
[记忆技巧]联想记忆法:honest adj. 诚实的,忠实的;an honest face 真诚坦率的脸;a dishonest answer 不老实的回答;a dishonest car dealer 不诚实的汽车经营者
9. dull [dQl]感觉或理解迟钝的,无趣的,呆滞的,阴暗的//vt. 使迟钝,使阴暗,缓和//vi. 变迟钝,减少
例:Business in dull. 生意冷清。
He dulled his knife. 他把刀弄钝了。
Some drugs dull pain. 有些药能止痛。
This cheap knife dulls easily. 这把便宜的刀容易变钝。
[常用词组](as)dull as ditch -water [口]非常沉闷乏味/a dull knife. 一把钝刀/a dull ache. 隐痛/a dull play 一出乏味的戏/a dull brown colour 暗棕色/a dull, cloudy day阴沉的、多云的日子/dull pupils 愚笨的学生/a dull speech 单调乏味的讲话/a dull book 枯燥无味的书。
10. mile[mail]n. 英里;较大的距离
例:The woman knew that the nearest village was miles away. 这位妇女知道,即使最近的村庄也在数英里之外。
It stands (sticks)out a mile. 俚 一目了然,显而易见
He has a 10-mile drive each day to and from his work. 他每天上下班驱车十英里。
to miss the target a mile 远远没有击中目标
They had to walk for miles i nthe airport. 他们在机场得走很长的路。
He achieve a six minute mile. 他用6分钟跑完一英里的赛跑。
[常用词组]a mile off [away]们[俚]很容易(看出或嗅出)/country mile [美口]极长的一段距离/have but a mile to misdsummer 精神不大正常/not a hundered (million )miles from (away, off)离不远;差不多;离不久/run a mile [口]飞快跑开,躲开/talk a mile a minute [口]说得很快,没有停顿/miles better (easier)好(容易)得多
11.Antarctic adj. 南极的//n. 南极地区
[记忆技巧]联想记忆法:Antarctica n. 南极洲;South Pole [地]南极, (地球的)南磁极,[天]南天极
12. stormy [5stC:mi]adj.暴风雨的, 多风暴的, 激烈的, 暴怒的, 有暴风雨的
例:The atormy waves punded against the rocks. 汹涌澎湃的波浪猛烈地冲击着岩石。
[常用词组]a stormy night 暴风雨之夜 /stormy weather 暴风雨的天气/a stormy argument一场激烈的争辩
13. threaten [5Wretn]vt.恐吓, 威胁, 预示(危险), 似有发生或来临的可能, 可能来临
His father threatened to beat the boy if he stole again.
男孩的父亲威胁说如果他再偷东西的话,就要揍他。
He threatened the council member with public exposure.
他威胁说要向公众揭发这个市议员。
The river of liquid rock threatened to surround him completely, but Tazieff managed to escape just in time.
这股岩浆威胁着要将他团团围住,但泰哲夫还是设法及时躲开了。
The clouds threaten rain.
云预示有雨。
The day before attack, a rain-storm threatened.
在进行攻击的前一天, 看来要有一场暴雨。
[记忆技巧]threatening adj. 胁迫的,危险的;threatened adj. 害怕的,受到威胁或处于危险境地的。
[常用词组]threaten sb. with death 用死威胁某人/threath to do sth. 威胁要做某事
14. somehow[5sQmhau]adv.以某种方式,以某种方法;莫明其妙地;不知怎么地
例:She somehow got lost. 她不知道怎么竟迷了路。
[记忆技巧]`比较记忆法:somewhat adv.稍微, 有点, 有些;如:I was somewhat surprised. 我有点惊讶。
[常用词组]somehow or other不知是什么原因,由于某种原因, 以某种方式
15. shelter[5FeltE]n.掩蔽处, 身避处, 掩蔽, 保护, 庇护所, 掩体 //v.掩蔽, 躲避
例:He stood in the shelter at the bus stop. 他站在公共汽车站的候车亭里。
We took shelter from the storm in a barn. 我们在一个谷仓里躲避暴风雨。
And the dead tree gives no shelter. 死树不能提供保护。
[常用词组]be a shelter from成为躲避...的处所 /fly to sb. for shelter(=seek shelter at sb.'s house) 逃进某人家里避难/give shelter to
庇护 /lend the shelter of one's name and position to sb.
利用自己的名誉地位庇护某人
/take shelter (=find shelter)避难, 躲避 /under the shelter of 在...的庇护下 /shelter oneself behind 躲在背后
16. regret[ri5^ret]n.遗憾, 悔恨, 抱歉, 歉意//vt.为...感到遗憾, 后悔, 惋惜, 哀悼, 懊悔//vi.感到抱歉
例:She looked back with regret on the pain she had caused her family. 她痛心地回顾她给她的家庭所带来的痛苦。
I regret my ignorance on the subject. 我很遗憾, 对此问题一无所知。
To this day I do not regret having made that remark. 说了这话, 我至今不后悔。
I regret to say I cannot come. 很抱歉,我不能来了。
He told me with regret that he could not come to the party.
他很抱歉地对我说他不能来参加这个聚会了。
[常用词组]I regret (to say) that...我很遗憾...; 很抱歉.../It is to be regretted that ...使人遗憾的是...; /have no regrets 没有遗憾
/express regret at [for, over] 对...表示可惜[遗憾], 为...表示抱歉
/hear with regret of [that] 听到觉得后悔[惋惜, 失望]/refuse with many regrets [much regret]婉言谢绝/send regrets [a regret] (尤指对请贴)发出辞谢信/to send one's regrets 送出辞谢的回帖
17. extreme [iks5tri:m]adj.极端的, 极度的, 偏激的, 最后的//n.极端, 极端的事物
例:He lives at the extreme edge of the forest. 他住在森林的最边上。
His political ideas are rather extreme. 他的政治思想相当极端。
Extremes meet.(谚)两极相通。物极必反。
Joy and grief are extremes. 喜与悲是两个极端。
[常用词组]go from one extreme to the other
从一极端转到另一极端
go to extremes (=run to an extreme)
走极端, 采取极端手段
go to the extreme of
达到...的极端; 采取极端的手段
in extremes
极端贫困, 陷入绝境, 濒于死亡
in  the  extreme极度地, 非常地/in  an extreme 极度地, 非常地/to an extreme极度地, 非常地/to the  extreme 极度地, 非常地/extremes of fortune盛衰荣枯/extreme heat极热/extreme opinions偏激观点
18. climate[5klaimit]n.气候
例:He lives in a cold climate. 他住在寒冷地带。
[记忆技巧]比较记忆法;weather n. 天气,气候,气象,处境
[常用词组]political climate政治风气/arctic climate北极气候/coastal climate海岸气候/economic climate经济形势,经济气候/environmental climate环境气候/investment climate投资环境, 投资气候/mainland climate大陆气候/climate for learning学习风气
19. value [5vAlju:]n.价值, 估价, 评价, 价格, [数]值, 确切涵义//vt.估价, 评价, 重视
例:What is the value of your house?你的房子值多少钱?
In spite of this, many people are confident that 'The Revealer' may reveal something of value fairly soon.
尽管如此,很多人都相信那个`探宝器'很快就能探测到一些有价值的东西。
We never khow the value of water til the well is dry. [谚]井干方知水可贵。
He valued the ring at $80. 他估计这枚戒指值五万元。
He often values himself on [upon]his knowledge. 他时常夸耀自己的知识。
I don't put much value on what he says. 我不重视他所说的话。
[常用词组]good value[口](钱)花得值, 值得买/of no value没有价值的
/poor value[口](钱)花得不值, 不值得(花钱)买/put [set) little value on [upon]对...评价不高; 不怎么重视/put [set] much [a high] value on [upon]
对...给予高度评价; 重视/set a value on估价, 评价/set at no value认为没有价值; 毫不重视/value at估(某物的)价为/value oneself on [upon]
以...自豪; 以...夸耀自己
20. admire[Ed5maiE]v.赞美, 钦佩, 羡慕
例: I admire her for her bravery.我钦佩她的勇气。
We all admired her for the way she saved the children from the fire.
她把孩子们从大火中救出来,我们都钦佩不已。
Everybody admires him for his fine sense of humour.
人人都钦佩他那绝妙的幽默感。
I just admire to get letters, but I don't admire to answer them.
我只是喜欢收到信件,而不喜欢回信。
We all admired at his sudden success.
他的突然成功使我们感到惊讶。
21. [5peni]n. 便士, <美> 分
例:A penny saved is a penny earned.省一文等于挣一文。
I paid a pretty penny for that ring. 我花了一大笔钱买了那个戒指。
Please give me six pennies for this sixpence.
请给我把这个六便士的硬币换成六个一便士的硬币。
She had several coins in her pocket, but no pennies.
她口袋里有几个硬币,但是没有便士。
The penny dropped.目的已达到。话已听明白。
It won't cost penny.它一文钱不值。
22.bother[5bCTE]vt.烦扰, 打扰//vi.烦恼, 操心//n.麻烦, 烦扰
例:Don't bother me while I am taking my nap.
我小睡的时候不要打扰我。
We had a lot of bother finding our way to his house.
我们费了很大劲才找到他的家。
Gardening takes more bother than it's worth.
种花是很费工夫的, 真不值得。
Will it bother you if I turn the television on? 我开电视会不会吵着你?
I'm sorry to bother you, but can you direct me to the railway station?
劳驾,你能不能告诉我到火车站怎么走?
Don't bother about answering his letter.
你不必回复他的信。
We had a lot of bother in repairing the press machine.
修理这台印刷机费了很大劲。
[常用词组]bother (oneself) about (=bother one's head about)
为...而操心; 为...而费事
fame[feim]n.名声, 名望//vt.(常用被动语态)使闻名;传扬……的名
例:The reformer's fame spread all over the country. 这位改革者名震全国。The city is famed for its scenic spots. 该市以风景优美著称。
[常用词组]be famed for/以...出名/come to fame成名/ill fame丑名, 恶名
/undying fame不朽之名/peal sb.'s fame鼓吹某人的声誉
24. skip[skip]v.跳, 蹦, 急速改变, 跳读, 遗漏, 跳跃/n.跳跃
例:A newspaper reader can select what he is interested in and skip what he thinks is boring or irrelevant.
"报纸读者可以选择自己感兴趣的新闻,略过自己认为是枯燥的或无关的消息。"
He build up a big load of debts, then skipped town with all his merchandise. 他债台高筑,带着所有的货物匆匆离镇而去。
We skipped science class again. 我们又一次逃了自然科学课。
25. primary[5praimEri] adj. 第一位的, 主要的, 初步的, 初级的, 原来的, 根源的
例:A primary school is the first school you go to. 小学是你上的第一个学校。
[记忆技巧]比较记忆法:secondary adj.  次要的, 二级的,中级的,第二的
26. hardship[5hB:d7Fip] n.困苦, 艰难, 辛苦
例:One of the worst hardships is having so little time to spend one's family. 花很少的时间在家庭里是最困难的事情之一。
[记忆技巧]比较记忆法:friendship 友谊;leadership 领导
27. scholarship [5skClEFip]n.奖学金, 学问, 学识
例:For a few, scholarships were sources of support.
有少数人,奖学金是他们接受教育的学费来源。
三、易混易错词语辨析
1. 辨析 alone 与 lonely:
alone 既可用作副词,也可作形容词,其意义为“单独,独自”。如:
He works (lives) alone. 他独自一人工作(单独居住)。
The house stands alone on the hill. 那房子独立在山上。
I was alone in the house. 我一人在屋里。
He lives on tea and cake when he is alone. 他一个人时常就吃点饼干,喝点茶。
alone 做副词用还有“只有;仅仅”的意思,相当于。如:
You can't live on bread alone. 你不能只吃面包,这样难以生活。
Time alone will show who was right. 只有时间才会证明谁是对的。
lonely 虽然是副词的形式,但只能做形容词用。指人时。意为“单独,独自”;指地方时,为“无人居住的,荒唐的”。如:
With all this friends away from him, he feels lonely. 他远离朋友们,感到很感伤。
Was there someone else on this lonely island? 这荒凉的岛上还有其他的人吗?
He lives alone but he doesn't feel lonely. 他独自一人生活,电脑他并不感到孤独。
2. 辨析 miserable, dismal, sorry, unhappy 与 wrethed:
意义都含“极不幸的”、“忧郁的”、“难过的”、“悲惨“。miserable指由于贫困、屈辱、愤怒或不幸等而引起内心极端痛苦的”,如:
the miserable life of the poor in the past. 过去穷人的悲惨生活。
dismal指“忧郁的”、“忧愁的”、“不愉快的”,如:
He felt dismal after reading  piece of bad news in the newspaper. 他读了报上的一条不好的消息后心情忧郁。
sorry指“心情不愉快的”、“难过的”或“遗憾的”,如:
I felt deeply sorry for him. 我为他深感难过。
unhappy指“心情不愉快的”、“难过的”或“遗憾的”、如:
He was unhappy when alone. 他独自一人时感到不快活。
wretched 指“由于受伤、疾病、愤怒等外表上显得极端沮丧、失望或可怜的”、“不幸的”、如:
What a wretched existence these people lead in the slums! 住在贫民窟里的这些人生活多可怜呀!
3. 辨析 threaten 与 menace:
都含“威胁”、“恐吓”的意思。threaten指“扬言将以伤害或惩罚迫使某人去做(或不做)某事”,menace强调“以态度或动作等表示将要迫害某人”。如:
I was threatened with a beating if I didn't obey.
They menaced her with a whip.
A man who drives fast is a menace to other people.
A tone of menace entered into the man's vioce.
4. 辨析 cheerful, glad, happy 与 joyful:
这四个词都有“快乐”的意思。cheerful 作“愉快”解,常指乐观天性的自然流露,包括在不利的情况下保持愉快的心情。例如:
He always books cheerful even in defeat. 他总是高高兴兴的,即使输了也是如此。
glad 表示由于某一特定的事物或原因而“快乐”、“高兴”,一般只作表语。
I am glad to have this opportunity to speak here.我很高兴有此机会在此讲话。
happy 本意是“幸福的”,但也可泛指一般的:“快乐”,如:
We are leading a happy life. 我们过着幸福的生活。
joyful 意为“兴高采烈”或“令人欢欣”,如:
Let us sing some songs to celebrate this joyful occasion. 让我们唱歌来庆祝这令人欢乐的节日吧。
注意:glad 和 happy 后可连用不定式,而 cheerful 和 joyful 后面不用不定式。
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