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高三选修10 Unit 3 Fairness for all语法讲解[动词时态]
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2008-11-20 | 字体: |

语法知识归纳梳理——动词时态

英语有16种时态,初学者要掌握几种常用的,以便进一步学习。

1、一般现在时态

1)表示现存的一般状态、习惯、经常发生的事以及客观事实。常常和sometimes, often, never,every day等副词或短语连用。比如:

I’m German; I come from Berlin.

I get up at seven o’clock every morning.

2)用来谈论时刻表和日程安排。

When does the next train to Cambridge leave?

It leaves at half past four.

真题:

1. Visitors _______ not to touch the exhibits. (2001全国)

A. will request   B. request   C. are requesting   D. are requested.

解析:一般现在时态的被动语态。故选D。

2.---Sorry, Joe, I didn’t mean to…. (2003全国)

---Don’t call me “Joe”, I’m Mr. Parker to you, and ______ you forget it!

A. do    B. didn’t    C. did     D. don’t

解析:否定的祈使句表示“建议”,语气较强。故选D。

3. No one in the department but Tom and I _____ that the director is going to resign. (2004上海)

A. knows   B. know   C. have known   D. am to know 

解析:既考时态又考主谓一致。No one是主语部分的中心词。故选A。

4.—You ‘re drinking too much. ( 2000春招)

—Only at home. No one ____me but you.

A. is seeing                  B. had seen                  C. sees                 D. saw

解析:表示一般(现在的)事实。故选C。

5. I ____ Ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year. (2001全国)

A. played              B. will play            C. have played              D. play.

解析:“乒乓球打得如何”是一般的事实状况。故选D。

2、一般将来时:

1)表示动作在未来某一时刻发生。Will/shall 和be going to均表将来,有时可以互换。但其区别是:will/shall表示一般的将来动作、有时也含有情态动词的意思;be going to 表示“计划、打算”或“某事非发生不可”。

“Oh dear! I’ve spilt some wine on my jacket.” “Don’t worry. I’ll clean it for you.”

2) “be about to do”, “be to do”, “be going to do”这三种形式都可以表示将来时。

be about to do表示最近的将来,意思是 “马上”、“立刻”。be to do 则表示某事在将来一定会发生或者命中注定会发生、已经计划好了。比如:

We are to meet Mr. Smith next Wednesday.我们下周三要见史密斯先生。

You are to answer for all these things.你要对这些事负责的。

When I was about to leave , the phone rang.我正要离开时,电话响了。

注意:时间状语从句和条件状语从句里的一般将来时态,要用一般现在时态表达。

1. – you’ve left the light on.  – Oh, so I have. ______ and turn it off. (2000 全国)

A. I’ll go    B. I’ve gone    C. I go    D. I’m going

解析:你提醒我以后,我要去关灯。故选A。

2. Hundreds of jobs _______ if the factory closes. (2001春招)

A. lose     B. will be lost   C. are lost   D. will lose

解析:将来时态的被动语态。故选B。

3. – When will you come to see me, Dad? (2003北京)

– I will go to see you when you _____ the training course.

A. will have finished   B. will finish.   C. are finishing   D. finish.

解析:时间状语从句里的一般将来时态要用一般现在时态去表示。故选D。

4. Let’s keep to the point or we ______ any decisions. (2004全国)

A. will never reach   B. have never reached   C. never reach  D. never reached 

解析:祈使句加or或and连接的并列句,前面的祈使句相当于条件状语从句。故选A。

5. The number of deaths from heart disease will be reduced greatly if people ____ to eat more fruit and vegetables. (2004上海)

A. persuade           B. will persuade            C. be persuaded            D. are persuaded

解析:这是条件状语从句中的将来时态用一般现在时态表达,同时考查语态。故选D。

6. Turn on the television or open a magazine and you _____ advertisements showing happy families. (2004湖南 )

A. will often see           B. often see           C. are often seeing                      D. have often seen

解析:该题中or连接两个平行的祈使句,and连接的是并列句,and之前的祈使句相当于条件状语,“在这种条件下将会。。。”,所以用一般将来时态。故选A。(参见本小节第4小题)

3、一般过去时/现在完成时/过去完成时:

一般过去时态表示过去发生的事实或存在的状态。与现在完成时态的区别是:一般过去时描述的动作与现在无联系;现在完成式强调动作与现在的联系或对现在的影响。现在完成时常有ever/never/yet,/already/so far/since ever等副词、短语作状语从句。比如:

I quickly dressed and left the flat.我迅速穿好衣服后就离开了公寓。

He came in, sat down and turned on the television.他走进来、坐下来,然后打开了电视机。

I haven’t had my breakfast yet.我还没吃早饭呢。

过去完成时态则表示“在一般过去动作之前(过去的过去)”发生的动作。比如:

She said she had finished her homework before supper.她说她晚饭前就做完了家庭作业。

真题:

1. All the preparations for the task ________ and we’re ready to start. (2000春招)

A. completed  B. complete  C. had been completed  D. have been completed

解析:现在完成时态的被动语态,表示preparations已经完成。故选D。

2. John and I ______ friends for eight years. We first got to know each other at a Christmas party. But we _______ each other a couple of times before that. (2002春招)

A. had been; have seen               B. have been; have seen

C. had been; had seen       D. have been; had seen 

解析:该题考查现在完成式和过去完成式的使用。故选D。

3. This is Ted’s photo. We miss him a lot. He _______ trying to save a child in the earthquake. (2002春招)

A. killed    B. is killed    C. was killed    D. was killing

解析:该题考查时态和语态。一般过去时态表示“过去的事实”。故选C。

4. My uncle _____ until he was forty –five. (2002上海)

  A. married    B. didn’t marry    C. was not marrying    D. would marry

解析:“四十岁时结的婚”是“过去的事实”;该句是not…until…结构。故选B。

5.—How long ____ at this job?  —Since 1990. (2003北京)

A. were you employed            B. have you been employed

C. had you been employed    D. will you be employed

解析:“做这份工作有多长时间了”指“过去”开始的动作延续到现在,还有可能向将来延续。要用现在完成时态表达。故选B。

6. —How are the team playing? (2002春招)

—They are playing well, but one of them ______ hurt.

A. got      B. gets    C. are     D. were.

解析:表示过去的事实。故选A。

7. —You haven’t said a word about my new coat, Brenda. Do you like it? (2002全国)

—I’m sorry I ______ anything about it sooner. I certainly think it’s pretty on you.

A. wasn’t saying   B. don’t say   C. won’t say   D. didn’t say

解析:表示过去的事实。故选D。

8. I wonder why Jenny _____ us recently. We should have heard from her by now. (2002全国)

A. hasn’t written    B. doesn’t write    C. won’t write    D. hadn’t written

解析:writing在过去有无发生与现在有联系(因为我们正在关心着这件事);recently也是与现在完成时连用的副词。故选A。

9. With the rapid growth of population, the city ____ in all directions in the past five years. (03春招)

A. spreads        B. has spread       C. spread        D. had spread

解析:过去开始的状态一直延续到现在,还有可能向将来延续。故选B。

10. All morning as she waited for the medical report from the doctor, her nervousness_______. (2003全国)

A. has grown      B. is growing       C. grew         D. had grown

解析:表达过去的事实,grow是延续性动词。故选C。

11. The silence of the library _____ only by the sound of pages being turned over. (2003春招)

A. has been broken   B. breaks       C. broke          D. was broken

解析:过去时态的被动语态。故选D。

12. The news came as no surprise me. I _______ for some time that the factory was going to shut down. (2003北京)

A. had known       B. knew       C. have known     D. know

解析:know发生在came之前。故选A。

13. I thought Jim would say something about his school report, but he _____it. (2003上海)

A. doesn’t mention  B. hadn’t mentioned  C. didn’t mention  D. hasn’t mentioned

解析:过去事实。故选C。

14. My mind wasn’t on what he was saying so I’m afraid I _______ half of it. (2004 全国) 

A. was missing    B. had missed        C. will miss       D. missed

解析:同上。故选D。

15. How can you possibly miss the news? It _______ on TV all day long. (2004北京)

A. has been       B. had been         C. was            D. will be

解析:表示延续到现在的状态。故选A。

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