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高三选修10 Unit 4 Learning efficiently语法讲解[虚拟语气]
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2008-11-28 | 字体: |

语法知识归纳梳理—虚拟语气

中学生要掌握“虚拟语气在条件句中的使用”、“虚拟语气在宾语从句中的使用”、“虚拟语气在表达‘愿望、主张’等从句中的使用”和“虚拟语气在特殊结构中的使用”等。这些是进一步学习英语的重要基础。现分述如下:

1.虚拟条件是指讲话人认为无法实现、不可能存在的条件。在考题中,出题人会将虚拟条件转成其他的“事实”陈述,而不以if-clause的形式出现。

1)与现在事实不符的虚拟条件句

If Professor Zhang were here, he could/would/might/should help us.张教授现在如果在这里,他就能/就会/也许/应该帮助我们。(四个情态动词各表达讲话人不同的讲话态度,要注意选择使用。)

2)与过去事实不符的虚拟条件句

If you had gone to the meeting yesterday, you should have known what was discussed there.昨天,你如果参加了会议,就应该知道会议上讨论了什么。

Had Tom met me before, I might have told him about it.汤姆要是早点儿遇到了我,我也许把这件事告诉过他了。(省略if就要将谓语部分的<第一个>动词调到句首)

真题:

1. It is hard for me to imagine what I would be doing today if I _____ in love at the age of seven, with the Melinda Cox Library in my hometown. (2002上海)

A. wouldn’t have fallen               B. had not fallen           C. should fall         D. were to fall.

解析:这是混合时态、混合语气的主从复合句。主句is hard是陈述语气;宾语从句里的主句谓语would be doing是“与现在事实不符”的虚拟语气;if引导的条件句谓语应该要是与过去事实不符的虚拟语气,因为at the age of seven是明确的时间状语。故选B。

2. Oh, I’m not feeling well in the stomach. I ______ so much fried chicken just now. (2002上海)

A. shouldn’t eat     B. mustn’t have eaten    C. shouldn’t have eaten               D. mustn’t eat

解析:时间状语just now和过去时态连用,因此这是与过去事实不符的虚拟语气。故选C。

3. He hesitated for a moment before kicking the ball, otherwise he _____ a goal. (2001上海)

A. had scored               B. scored              C. would score             D. would have scored

解析:从逻辑的角度看,转折副词otherwise后面总是要接虚拟语气。该句中hesitated是过去时态,故选D。

4. Mr. White _____ at 8:30 for the meeting, but he didn’t show up.  (2004广西)

A. should have arrived                        B. should arrive

C. should have had arrived                  D. should be arriving

解析:8:30就应到达,但是现在还没有出现。Should含有轻微的指责意。故选A。

5. –I’ll tell Mary about her new job tomorrow. 23. (2004福建)

–You _____ her last week.

A. ought to tell             B. would have told               C. must tell           D. should have told 

解析:原因同上。故选D。

6. I was really anxious about you. You _____ home without a word. (2001全国)

A. mustn’t leave    B. shouldn’t have left    C. couldn’t have left     D. needn’t leave 

解析:你不应该一句话不说就离家出走的,但是你却这样做了,用虚拟语气。故选B。

3)与将来事实可能不符的条件句

If it were to rain this afternoon, the football match would be put off till next Friday.如果今天下午下雨,足球赛就推迟到下一周星期五。

Did Tom come tomorrow(=If Tom came tomorrow), we should show him around our campus.如果汤姆明天来,我们应该带领他参观我们的校园。

If they should play the match against us, we should get the team well organized and try our best to beat them.如果他们真的和我们打比赛,我们应该好好地组织并努力战胜他们。

注意:⑴条件句引导词if若被省略,该条件句则倒装。⑵在实际使用中,虚拟语气和陈述语气会出现在同一主从复合句里。所以,我们要注意混合语气、混合时态的使用。比如:

If I had known her earlier, I might have fallen in love with her. But what a pity, now she has been other’s bride.我如果早一些时候认识她,我也许会爱上她的。可是,可惜啊,她现在成了别人的新娘。

If I had been informed yesterday, I should know what to do now.昨天要是有人告诉我,我现在就知道做什么了。

真题:

I _____ pay Tracy a visit, but I’m not sure whether I will have time this Sunday. (2004浙江)

A. should              B. might               C. would              D. could 

解析:根据but引导的转折分句看,visit如果要发生,也应该是周末的事。故选A。

2. 虚拟语气在宾语从句中的使用

在英语里,wish/ advise/ suggest(建议)/ demand/insist(坚决主张)/ ask(要求) / order / require / desire / propose/ urge/ prefer等动词后的宾语从句用虚拟语气,除wish以外,其结构都是“should+原形动词”,should可以被省略。在与这些动词对应的名词后的同谓语从句、表语从句里也要用这种结构的虚拟语气。

I wish I would be manager of this company after I graduate from the college.我希望大学毕业后能做这个公司的经理。

I wish I had enough money on me now.我希望现在手头有足够的钱。

I wish I had met the beautiful young lady yesterday.我希望昨天见过那位年轻漂亮的女士了。

The head-teacher asked that the classroom (should) be cleaned right away.班主任要求学生们立即打扫教室。

真题:

1. How I wish every family ______ a large house with a beautiful garden! (02上海)

A. has           B. had           C. will have           D. had had

解析:就本句看,是描述一般情况,表达与现在的愿望之间的距离或者叫与现在事实不符的虚拟语气。故选B。

2. You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman _____ be so rude to a lady. (2001上海)

A. might               B. need          C. should              D. would

解析:该宾语从句描述“想象”与“现实”之间的差距,也是与现在事实不符的虚拟语气。故选C。

3. 虚拟语气在as if(though) /even if(though)等句子中的使用

We should act as if she were watching us.我们要表现出好像她在看着我们。

I couldn’t help even though I had been there at the moment.即使我当时在场,我也没有办法。

4. 虚拟语气在It is important/ necessary/ desirable/ possible/ natural/ essential that-clause以及would rather/sooner后的从句中和其他的特殊结构中的使用。比如:

It’s necessary that you (should) keep your safety belt on at all times 你有必要始终系好安全带。

It’s strange that they (should) feel so angry.真奇怪,他们感到那么生气。

It’s a pity that they should have forgotten to tell you about it.真遗憾,他们竟然忘记了通知你这件事。

I’d rather you came tomorrow.我倒希望你明天来。

If only he were alive.他活着就好了。

It’s (high) time that we went home.我们应该回家。

真题:If only he ____ quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so much now. (00上海)

A. lies                   B. lay                   C. had lain                   D. should lie

解析:在他“现在”遭罪之前应遵医嘱“静卧”,但他过去没有。与过去事实不符,故选C。

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