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高中英语教材重难点:高三 Unit 11--15
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:本站整理 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2006-6-12 | 字体: |

Unit 11 The Merchant of Venice
1.主语 + is always ready to do sth. ......总是乐于......;易于......,动辄......
The little girl is always ready to cry. 这小女孩动不动就哭。
2.trade with 与......做生意
We have been trading with their company in silk these years. 这些年来我们一直与他们公司做丝绸生意。
3.be in love with 爱上;相爱
They have been in love with each other for many years. 他们相爱已多年了。
4.The reason for... was that... ......的原因是......
reason作主语时,表语从句由that引导,而不用because。此处for作"因为、由于"解,其后跟名词、代词、动名词或从句作宾语。例如:
The reason for his being late is that he got up late. 他迟到的原因是他起床晚了。
5.scold sb. for 因......责备某人;因......训斥某人
Dad scolded me for coming home late. 父亲责备我回家晚了。
6.greedy 贪婪的
The greedy little boy ate all the food at the party. 那个贪吃的小男孩把宴会上所有的事物都吃光了。
7.agreement 同意,协议
You've broken our agreement. 你已经撕毁了我们之间的协议。
8.make a promise 许诺
He made a promise to me that he would buy me something on my birthday. 他许诺说在我生日的时候他要为我买点东西。
9.trial 审讯,审判
句型链接: be on trial for... 因......而受审判;bring sb. to trial 告发某人,将某人交付审判
10.have mercy on/upon sb. 同情;怜悯
They had no mercy on/upon these prisoners. 他们对这些囚犯毫无怜悯之意。
同义词链接: show mercy to sb.
11.It is useless/no use doing sth. 做......是无用的。
It is useless/no use waiting here doing nothing. 无所事事地等待是没有用的。
12.flesh 肉
短语链接: put on/lose flesh 长胖了/消瘦了;flesh and blood 肉体,血肉之躯;one's own flesh and blood 亲骨肉
辨析: flesh通常指人或动物身上的肉,也可指供食用的兽类的肉(区别于鱼或禽的肉);meat是供食用的动物的肉,通常不包括鱼和家禽的肉。
注意: meat是供食用的肉类的总称,猪肉、牛肉、羊肉等各有其专门名称,即pork, beef, mutton等。
13.hope for 希望;盼望
Hope for the best, prepare for the worst. 抱最好的希望,做最坏的准备。
14.in one's place 处于......位子
Put yourself in my place. 替我设身处地想想。
15.so young a body with so wise a head. 此处body相当于man。这里的so和such的意思相同,但它们的用法以及所修饰的部分却不同。so修饰形容词或副词,而such修饰名词,因此,句子中的so young a body相当于such a young body, so wise a head相当于such a wise head。
16.take one's seat 坐下;就坐
Everybody took his seat when the bell rang. 铃响了,每个人都坐下了。
同义词链接: take one's place; sit down
17.be seated 坐好了;坐下
Be seated please. 请坐。
18.by law 按照法律
This house will go to your younger brother by law. 按照法律这个房子将归属于你弟弟。
19.use one's head 动脑筋;有头脑
Never point a gun at anybody, John, use your head. 决不能把枪口对着人,John,你应当有这点头脑。
20.do the deed 付诸行动;生效
The new law will do the deed from the beginning of nexe year. 这个法律将于明年初生效。
21.be sad for... 为......难过
The whole family were sad for the death of their pet dog. 全家人都为他们的宠物狗的死亡而难过。
22.pay back 偿还;报答;报复;惩罚
I'll pay you back the money you lent me. 我要把你借给我的钱还给你。
He paid her back with all his heart. 他真诚地报答她。
23.all my heart 在本文中为双关语,其字面意思是"整个心脏",而实际意思是"全心全意;诚心诚意"。例如:
I welcome your idea with all my heart. 我真诚地接受你的意见。
24.take sb. in one's arms 拥抱某人
His aunt took him in her arms closely and kissed him. 他姑姑把他紧紧地搂进怀里,亲了亲。
25.shall 主要用作助动词。用于第一人称,表示将来时,用于第二、三人称,表示警告,允诺,命令,决心,强制等。这时shall起情态动词的作用。
We shall start for Beijing tomorrow. 我们明天起身去北京。
You shall okey the rules. 你要遵守规则。
26.more than 多于;不仅仅是
John is more than my teacher, but also my friend. John不仅仅是我的老师,还是我的朋友。
27.at the mercy of 任由......摆布;在......的掌握(支配)中;听凭......处理
The dog's life is at the mercy of its master. 狗的生命在他的主人掌握之中。
28.go down on one's knees 跪下;屈膝
They'll never go down on their knees before the oppressors. 他们决不向压迫者屈膝。
短语链接: go down on one knee 单膝下跪
29.beg for 乞求;恳求
I beg for your kind help. 我恳求你的大力援助。
30.sth. is as dear as... ......和......一样珍贵
Love is as dear as life. 爱情就像生命一样珍贵。
31.comfort 舒服,舒适,满足,安慰
It is a word of comfort to a dying man. 这是对临死的人说的安慰话。
32.tell sb. about sth. 把某事告诉某人
Don't tell the old man about his wife's death until his son comes back. 等那个老人的儿子回来再把他妻子的死讯告诉他。
33.wear 穿着;戴着;带着
He seemed to be wearing new clothes every day when in university. 上大学的时候他好象天天穿着新衣服。
Why not wear a flower? 为什么不戴朵花呢?
辨析: wear表状态,宾语除衣服外,还可以是首饰、发式、胡须、表情等;put on意为"穿上",表动作,反义词是take off(脱下);pull on意为"匆忙穿上",表动作;dress用作不及物动词意为"穿",用作及物动词意为"给......穿",宾语为表人的名词或代词;be dressed in 意为"穿着",表状态;in也可跟表衣物的词,意为"穿着",表状态,常在句中作定语、状语或补语。

Unit 12 Mainly revision
1.a couple of 一对;一双;三两个
I'll be back in a couple of days. 我三两天后就回来。
2.driving permit 驾驶执照
Mike is not old enough to have a driving permit. Mike还不到拿驾驶执照的年龄。
3.I suggest you take a tent.
当主语的动词是suggest(表"建议"时),其宾语从句的谓语一般用"should + 动词原形",should也可以省略。
I suggest you see some of our national parks. 我建议你参观一下我们的国家公园。
注意: suggest 作"暗示,表明"解时,从句用陈述语气。
4.feel like 想要
She feels like crying. 她想哭。
Do you feel like (having) a walk with me? 你要不要和我去散步?
5.the cost of ......的费用;......的成本
The cost of the travel was higher than we had expected. 这次旅游的成本比我们预料的要高。
What does the coat cost? 这件大衣多少钱?
6.fly away 飞走
The plane made some circles and then flew away. 飞机转了几个圈,然后飞走了。
7.throughout (the winter) 整个冬天
People will not see all the animals througout the winter. 整个冬天人们是不会看到所有动物的。
8.go to sleep 入睡
Finally the children went to sleep. 最后孩子们睡着了。
9.a good many 很多
There are a good many books in the reading room. 阅览室里有大量的书籍。
10.keep...out 不让......进来
Qin Shihuang had the Great Wall built to keep the enemy out of his empire. 秦始皇修长城是为了不让敌人进入他的帝国。
11.keep up 支撑;(使)不低落
Sports can keep up your body temperature in winter. 在冬天体育活动可使你保持体温。
12.主语 + has no choice but + to do sth. 除了......别无选择
The enemy could do nothing but lay down their arms. 敌人只能放下武器。
13.lie in 在于
Hard work leads to success and failure often lies in laziness. 刻苦努力带来的是成功,而失败往往在于懒惰。
14.reduce...to... 减少
He reduced his speed to 40 kilometers an hour when he entered the city. 一进入城市他就把速度减到每小时四十公里。
15.far below... 远远低于,比......低得多
The production of their factory was far below the level last year. 去年他们工厂的产量远远低于正常水平。
16.that is to say 也就是说
They are not commin friends, that is to say, they have special relation. 他们不是普通朋友,也就是说,他们有着特殊的关系。
17.a thick covering of 厚厚的一层
There is a thick covering of leaves in the forest, which are very easy to catch fire. 森林中有厚厚的一层树叶,它们是非常容易着火的。
18.show off 给别人看;卖弄;炫耀;表现自己
He wants to go out only to show off his new clothes. 他要出去只不过是为了炫耀他的新衣服。
She likes to show (herself) off. 她爱表现自己。
19.shoot...dead 开枪打死......
Joe shot the poor horse dead. Joe开枪打死了那匹可怜的马。

Unit 13 The USA
一、疑难详解
1. New York(纽约),在本文中是指纽约市(New York City),而不是指纽约州(New York State)。纽约市是指美国东海岸的一个重要港口城市,位于纽约州的哈得逊河口(the Hudson River),是进入美国的门户。它包括五个行政区,其中四个都是在岛上,河道穿行其间,流经纽约湾,进入大西洋。
位于哈得逊河口的纽约湾(the New York Bay)于1524年首先由意大利航海家兼探险家Giovanni de Ver - razano(1480-1527)发现。后来在1609年,英国航海家和探险家亨利.哈得逊船长(Captain Henry Hudson)发现了哈得逊河和曼哈顿岛。1626年,两船荷兰殖民者来到这儿定居,建立了第一个殖民地,取名新阿姆斯特丹(New Amsterdam)。1664年,这块殖民地被约克公爵(Duck of York)率领的英国舰队占领,此后改名为(New York)。
2. In 1626 the island of Manhattan was bought from local Indians, Native Americans, for a handful of goods worth about $24. 曼哈顿岛是于1626年从当地的印第安人(即美洲土著人)手中买来的,只花了价值约为24美元的为数不多的货物。
1) the island of Manhattan(曼哈顿岛)是纽约市的市中心,是美国的经济中心,也是世界的政治中心。闻名世界的华尔街和联合国总部都是在这个岛上。该岛长21公里,宽约4公里,现在的地价已是寸土寸金了。但是1626年,荷兰总督Peter Minuit只花了24美元即从印地安人手中购得,难怪现在美国的土著人谈起这桩买卖就会愤慨。
2) a handful of... 一把;一撮;少数(人或物)。例如:
She put a handful of sweets on the desk and asked me to eat. 她抓了一把糖果放在书桌上来让我吃。
The child got a handful of rice to feed the chickens. 这孩子抓了一把米来喂小鸡。
Only a handful of people attended the dance. 只有少数几个人参加了舞会。
3) “... goods worth about $24”意为“价值约为24美元的货物”。
其中的worth是形容词,作“价值为”“值得”解,后跟名词或动词V-ing形式,构成后置定语,修饰它前面的名词。例如:
I bought a new English - Chinese dictionary worth 58 yuan yesterday. 我昨天买了本价值58元的英汉字典。
New York is a city worth a visit / visiting. 纽约是一个值得一看的城市。
另外,“某事值得一做”还有以下一些表达:
be worth sth. / doing sth.
be worthy of being done
be worthy to be done
It's worthwhile to do ...
利用上述表达,“这本书值得再读一遍”可以译成以下几种:
The book is worth reading a second time.
The book is worthy of being read a second time.
The book is worthy to be read a second time.
It's worthwhile to read the book a second time.
3. Ater the War of Independence ended, New York became the capital of the USA for a short time (1789-1790) before Washington D.C.. 独立战争结束以后,在华盛顿成为首都之前,纽约市曾经一度是美国的首都,不过时间很短(1789-1790)。
The War of Independence(美国独立战争)是1775-1781年发生在英属北美13个殖民地争取国家独立的战争。
18世纪后半期,随着殖民地经济的发展,殖民地人民同英国统治集团的矛盾日益尖锐,终于发展到了军事冲突。1775年4月18日波士顿人民有郊区打响了独立战争的第一枪,其他地区的人们纷纷响应。反英斗争的烽火燃遍了整个北美大陆。
战争爆发的第二年在费城召开了第二届大陆会议(1776年5月),组成了“大陆军”,由乔治.华盛顿(George Washington)任总司令。同年7月4日通过了由托马斯.杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)等人起草的《独立宣言》(Declaration of Independence),正式宣告了美国脱离英国而独立。原先的北美13个殖民地,这时成了美利坚合众国的13个州。从此,7月4日被定为美国的独立日。
4. By 1820 the population of New York had grown to about 125,000, making it the largest city in the USA. 到1820年,纽约市的人口增长到12万5千人左右,使它成为当时美国最大的城市。
1) 句中的by有“before(在……之前)”或“not later than(不迟于)”的意思,表示“在某时前”或“到某时”已发生某事或出现某种情况,谓语动词多用完成时态。句中的“1820年”是过去时间,所以谓语动词用过去完成时“had grown”。又如:
By 5 p.m. yesterday they had already done half of the work. 到昨天下午5点以前,他们已经完成了工任务的一半。
She had finished her composition by the time I came home. 在我回到家以前,她已经写完了作文。
Bye next Sunday we'll have made a plan for performance. 到下个星期天我们会定出演出计划的。
2) 句中的“... making it the largest city in the USA”是V-ing形式短语,作状语,表示结果。make作“使做某事”或“使之成为”解,后跟由名词或形容词构成的复合结构。例如:
Jack had all work but no play, making him a dull boy. 杰克只学习不游戏,这使得他成为了一个呆笨的孩子。
(All work but no play makes Jack a dull boy. 谚语:只工作不玩耍,聪明的孩子也变傻。)
The flood brought down a great number of houses, making thousands of people homeless. 洪水冲垮了大批房屋,使成成千上万的人无家可归。
Her husband died in the war, making her a widow with four children. 她的丈夫在战争中牺牲了,使她成为带着四个孩子的寡妇。
5. In 1858 an area of poor housing, factories and farm buildings was torn down andd Central Park was created, reaching from 59th Street to 110th Street and across three avenues. 1858年拆除了一大片破旧的房屋、工厂和农舍,建成了中央公园,这个公园从59号街延伸到110号街,跨越三条大马路。
1) Central Park(中央公园)是纽约市民常去休憩的公园,位于纽约市曼哈顿中心,公园南北长4公里,东西宽0.8公里,总面积为340公顷(1公顷合15市亩),其中61公顷为水域。园内有花坛、草坪和森林区,还有三个湖,两个池塘,一个动物园,以及各种运动场和娱乐设施。
2) tear(tore, torn)是动词,作“撕开、扯掉”解。短语动词tear down作“撕下、拆毁”解。例如:
Don't tear down the notice, please. 请不要扯掉这个布告。
The workers torn down the old house and built a new one in its place. 工人们拆毁旧屋,并在原址上另盖新屋。
The city will tear down these buildings to make room for the new railway station. 市政当局要拆毁这些建筑物,以让出地方修建火车站。
3) reach作“延伸”(extand)解。句中的“reaching from 59th Street ... across three avenues”是V-ing形式短语,作定语,相当于一个非限定性定语从句(which reched from 59th Street...),对先行词Central Park作补充说明。例如:
Behind our school garden is a park, reaching down to the river. 在我们校园后面有一个公园,一直延伸到江边。
In the eveing we came to a forest, reaching for many kilometres. 傍晚时分,我们来到了一片绵延数公里的森林。
6. In 1892 the age of mass arrivals began, during which 15 million new people passed through Ellis Island into the USA over a period of 62 years. 1892年开始了一个国外移民大量涌入的年代,在随后的62年中,有1500万新来的人通过埃利斯岛进入美国。
1) “during which 15 million new people ... the following 62 years”是非限定性定语从句,during which = during the age of mass arrivals.这个定语从句修饰先行词the age,从句与先行词之间被谓语动词began隔开,这种从句叫分隔式定语从句。例如:
The days will come soon when all people have enough to eat and to wear. 所有人丰衣足食的日子将会到来。
In one night, the city of Tangshan was destroyed, in which about 750,000 people died from the earthquake. 一夜之间,唐山市被毁了,市内约有75万人死于地震。
2) 短语动词pass through作“穿过、通过、路过”解,其中through可以是介词,也可以是副词,例如:
We're just passing through on our way to Hong Kong.我们途经此地去香港。
They had to pass through a few blocks to get to the river. 他们得穿过几个街区才能到达江边。
3) Ellis Island(埃利斯岛)是纽约湾中的一个岛屿,位于曼哈顿岛西南1.5公里。在1892-1954年之间,这儿曾设移民检查站,所有移民都需要在这儿滞留,经过检查,取得合法准入资格后,方可进入美国。在移民的高峰期,每年有100万人到此申请移民。许多移民经历千辛万苦来到了这个美国的门户,但由于不能通过检查而被迫离此而去。因此,埃利斯岛有“眼泪岛”(Island of Tears)之称。1965年成为自由女神纪念区的一部分,1976年开放给旅游者参观。
7. People who wanted to enter the USA had to go through a number of nental and physical tests and about 2 million people were turned down. 想要进入美国的人都必须经过多次的智力测试和体格检查,大约有200万人不准入境。
1) 句中的短语动词go through作“经历(困难、痛苦)”(to suffer sth.)解。例如:
His grandpa went through many dangers during the war. 在战争时期,他的祖父历经了许多危险。
She has gone through a lot since her husband was killed. 丈夫牺牲后,她经历了许许多多的困难。
They would through fire and water to serve the people. 为人民服务,他们愿意赴汤蹈火。
go through还有许多其他的词义,最常见的是作“审阅、检查、翻找”解。例如:
Please go through these papers carefully before you hand them in. 交卷之前请仔细检查。
She went through her desk looking for her new pen. 她翻找课桌寻找她的新钢笔。
2) turn down作“拒不接纳、不准进入”(to refuse to admit)解。例如:
Because the hall was full, many people were turned down. 因为大厅里已经满座,许多人被打发走了。
Crowds of people were turned down for lack of room. 因为场地有限,许多人被拒之门外。
8. A 55 - storey building went up in 1913, and in 1931 the Empire State Building was completed, then the tallest building in the world. 1913年一座55层高的大楼拔地而起,1931年帝国大厦竣工,这在当时是世界上最高的大厦。
1) “then the tallest building in the world.”可以看作是下列非限定性定语从句的省略;“..., (which was ) then the tallest building in the world.”,其中的which代替主句中的主语the Empire State Building,这个定语从句对这个主语作补充说明。类似的句子如下:
He bought th car in 1980, then a modern bype in China. 他于1980年买了这部汽车,当时这种款式的车在中国相当的时髦。
2) the Empire State Building (帝国大厦)是纽约曼哈顿的一座摩天大楼,共102层,楼高381米(不包括电视塔),建于1930-1931年。长期以来它是世界上最高的大厦,直到1973年才让位于世界贸易中心(the World Trade Center)。该中心为双塔式大楼,位于美国午克萨斯州的休斯顿市。世贸中心于2001年9月11日被恐怖主义分子劫机撞毁。
9. It is thought that they arrived more than 30,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge from Asia to America. 他们被认为是在3万多年以前从亚洲跨越一座陆桥来到美洲的。
1) 本句是由形式主语it引导的句子,真正的主语是后面的that - clause。句中的“It is thought that ...”大体相当于:People think that...。因此,本句可以改写为:People think that they arrived more than 30,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge from Asia to America.
或者改写成:They are thought to arrive more than 30,000 years ago by crossing a land bridge from Asia to America.
又如:It is thought that the first settlers on the plains of America were Native Americans. = People think that the first settlers on the plains of America were Native Americans. = The first settlers on the plains of America are thought to be Native Americans. 美洲平原上的第一批定居者被认为是美洲土著人。
2) a land bridge from Asia to America亚洲和美洲之间的陆桥。据研究表明,在若干万年以前,北美与亚洲大陆是相连的,连接处是在北美的阿拉斯加和亚洲的东北端之间的白令海峡(Bering Strait),这个相连部位原本是亚洲和美洲之间的陆桥。后来由于地壳的变化,这个部位下沉为今日的白令海峡。
10. Now that they could ride horses, it became easier to hunt the bison, a type of cattle which used to exist in huge numbers on the plains of America. 既然土著人会骑马了,猎取野牛也就容易了。这种野牛以前是成群结队地生活在美洲平原上的。
1) now that是一个连词词组,作“既然(since)”解,连接一个表示原因的状语从句。在口语中这个that常可省略,而用now连接从句。而“now”在从句中已失去了“现在”的时间概念(从句中不一定要用现在时态)。不过,严格地说,“now that”多少含有“到达时”“到达……的阶段或状态”的意思。本句中的“now that they could ride hoorses”就含有“既然到了他们可以骑马的时候”的意思。例如:
Now (that) you are well again, you can work with them. 既然你已经康复了,你就可以跟他们一起工作了。
Now (that) we are alone, we can speak freely. 既然没有别人了,我们就可以无拘无束地谈谈了。
Now that he was really gone, I felt very sorry. 到他真的离开的时候,我倒感到很抱歉了。
2) in huge numbers作“大量地”(huge = very large/big)解。也可以说“in big / large / great numbers”。注意,这个词组中的number要用复数numbers。例如:
One afternoon before a storm I saw ants coming out in large numbers. 一天下午的暴雨前,我看到大批大批的蚂蚁爬出来。
Food and vegetable supplies are coming in large numbers. 粮食和蔬菜供应源源而来。
11. The bison grows to shoulder - height of 1.5 meters and can weigh 1100 kilograms. 野牛可以长到齐肩高1.5米,重达1100公斤。
Bison was killed for their meat, while their fur provided warm clothing during cold winters. 他们杀野牛,吃它的肉,用它的毛皮制成御寒的衣服。
注意bison这个名词单复数同形。当其作主语时,要注意主谓语的一致。在第一个句子中“The bison”是单数(被看成是一个整体),谓语动词用“grows”;第二个句子的主语“Bison”是复数(被看成是多数的个体),谓语动词用“were killed”,而且代词用their。
12. From 1830 onwards in the USA and from about 1870 in Canada、settlers began to move westwards and to take possession of the plains as their own. 美国自1830年起,加拿大从1870年左右起,殖民者开始向西迁移,并把平原据为己有。
1) from ... (time) on / onwards 从……(时候)起。类似的有:
from now on/onwards (从现在起)
from then on/onwards (从那时起)
from tht night on/onwards (从那天晚上起)
from 1980 onwards (从1980年起)
From 1990 onwards the city began to take on a new look. 从1990年起,这个城市开始出现了新面貌。
From now on we are classmates. 从现在起我们就是同学了。
后缀-wards常构成副词,表示“向”。如:
eastwards (向东) southwards (向南) westwards (向西) northwards (向北)
forwards (向前) backwards (向后) upwards (向上)  downwards (向下)
afterwards (以后)
2) take possession of夺取;占有。例如:
At midnight they crossed the river and took possession of the village. 他们半夜渡江,占领了那个村庄。
The old couple took possession of the house about 30 years ago. 那对老夫妇大约在30年前就买了那栋房子。
The policeman came and took possession of the thief's bag. 警察来了,把小偷的包夺了过来。
13. In this way Native Americans were forced onto poor land that the settlers did not want. 就这样,美洲土著人被赶到殖民者所不要的贫瘠土地上去了。
介词onto是介词on和介词to的合体,作“到……上面”解,既可以写作(onto),也可以写作(on to)。例如:He jumped onto the horse and left hurriedly.他跳上马,匆忙地走了。
They climbed on to the top of the mountain and put a flag there. 他们爬上山顶,插上一面旗子。
14. It was also thought that by removing thrie main supply of food, that Natve Americans would be forced to give in. 当时还有人认为,断掉了主要食物来源,土著人就会被迫屈服。
1) remove vt. 除去,排除,消除;脱下(get rid fo; take off)。例如:
Remove his name from the name list. 把他的名字从名单中勾掉。
We tried to remove his doubts and let him tell the truth. 我们设法消除他的疑虑,让他说出事情的真相。
By removing their fears, the villagers would not run away. 打消他们的恐惧情绪,村民们就不会逃走了。
The doctor asked Mr. King to remove his trousers so that he could give him an examination. 医生让金先生脱下裤子以便给他检查一下。
2) give in 投降,让步,同意。例如:
They refused to give in and fought to the end. 他们拒绝投降,坚持战斗到底。
Mother kept inviting Mrs. Smith to stay for lunch, and finally she gave in. 母亲再三邀请史密斯太太留下来吃午饭,她终于同意了。
Mary usually has to give in to her big brother. 玛丽通常得听从他大哥的话。
15. Between 1850 and 1910 the bison pupolation is thought to have fallen from 60 million to just a few hundred. 人们认为,在1850年到1910年之间,野牛的头数从6000万头降到只有几百头了。
“to have fallen”是不下式的完成时,表示不定式的动作发生在谓语动词的动作以前,也就是说“to have fallen”的动作发生在“is thought”动作之前。这种情况下,不定式用完成时。例如:
I am glad to ave met him. 我很高兴邮到了他。
He pretended to have read this book. 他假装已读过这本书。
She seems to have finished all her work. 她好像已经完成了她的全部工作。
16. Thus one simple fact, a change in the number of bison, had an effect on the whole wildlife chain of the plain. 因此,这样一个简单的事实——野牛数目的变化对整个野生生物链都产生了影响。
have an effect on 对……有影响,对……起作用。
effect后跟介词on或upon,effect前也可以有形容词作定语。例如:
These agreements have an effect on both the buyer and the seller. 这些协议对买卖双方都有作用。
The arrival of the European settlers had a great effect on the life of Native Americans. 欧洲殖民者的到来对美洲土著人的生活有很大的影响。
The cold in spring usually has a bad effect on the growth of plants. 春寒通常对植物的生长不利。
The medicine had no side effects on your body. 这种药对你的身体没有什么副作用。
二、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展
例:1.__the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet.
(1992年全国高考试题)
A. Whenever B. If C. Whether D. That
简析:这是一个主语从句。从谓语“is not known yet”可以看出,要填Whether,意思是“是否”。在主语从句中,要用Whether表示“是否”,而不能用If。If表示“是否”只用于宾语从句中。Whenever引导让步状语从句,意思是“无论何时”。that引导的是陈述句,谓语要用isknown.答案选C。
例:2.-What was the party like?
-Wonderful. It's years___ I enjoyed myself so much.(1992年全国高考题)
A. after B.before C. when D. since
简析:since引导的时间状语从句中,如果主语的意思是表示时间长度,主语的时态要用一般现在时,而不用现在完成时。另外,如果since引导的从句的位于动词事延续性动词,意思是很长时间没那么做了。如果谓语动词
是非延续性动词,意思是从那时开始,到目前为止有多长时间了。
答案选D。
例:3. I remember ___ this used to be a quiet village. (1993年全国高考题)
A. when  B. how C. where  D. what
简析:这是一个宾语从句。在填写连词时,要注意连词的功能和意义。在宾语从句中,what在宾语从句中作主语或宾语。因为“this used to be a quiet village” 不缺少宾语,所以选项D不能作为答案。a quiet描述了这个村庄是什么样子的,因此也不能填how.而a quiet village指明了地点,所以选项C也不是正确答案。答案为A。
例:4. After the war, a new school building was put up __ there had once been a theatre. (1997年高考题)
A. that B. when C. which D. where
简析:这是一个地点状语从句。where在从句中作地点状语。例如:Please put the book where it was.地点状语从句与宾语从句的区别在于,定语从句接在一个表示地点的名词后面;而地点状语从句接在一个句子的后面。
例如:I found my pen in the place where I left it. Where 引导的是一个定语从句;而I found my pen where I left it 中where引导的是一个地点状语。答案选D。
例:5. Why do you want a new job__ you've got such a good one already?
 (1998年高考题)
简析:这是一个时间状语从句。when在时间状语从句中作时间状语。这句话的意思是:“你现在已经得到一个那么好的工作,为什么还想要新工作呢?”that 和which银大定语从句。在定语从句中作主语或宾语,所以不能填that或which。where引导地点状语从句,表示地点。不符合句子的意思,所以也不能作答案。答案选D。
例:6.-I'm going to the post office.
-you're there, can you get me some stamps? (1999年全国高考题)
A. As B. While C.Because D. If
简析:连接词while引导时间状语从句。意思是“当...时。”这句话的意思是“当你在那儿的时候,是否能给我买一些邮票。”as 虽然也能引导时间状语从句,但意思是“一边...一边”,because引导的是原因状语从句; If 引导的是条件状语从句,都不能作答案。答案选B。
三、本单元生词详解
1. object[\~5CbdVikt\~]v. 反对
例:I object to the plan. 我反对此计划。
object常与介词to连用。
[记忆技巧]形近词比较记忆:subject[\~5sQbdVikt\~]n. 主题,学科;objection[\~Eb5dVekFEn\~]n. 反对,缺点;objective[\~Eb5dVektiv\~]a. 客观的
2. explorer[\~iks5plC:rE\~]n. 勘探者,探索者,考察者
例:The American explorer got to the moon first. 美国探险者最先登上月球。
[记忆技巧]同根词联合记忆:explore[\~iks5plC:\~]v. 探索,考察;exploration[\~7eksplC:5reiFEn\~]n. 探索,考察;explorative[\~eks5plC:rEtiv\~]a. 探索的,勘探的。
3. entry[\~5entri\~]n. 进入
例:The thieves had forced an entry into the building.窃贼闯进了楼内。
enter为及物动词,后面跟表示地点、场所的名词时不需要介词,如enter an room,不能说enter into a room。
[记忆技巧]同根词联合记忆:enter[\~5entE\~]v. 进入;entrance[\~in5trB:ns\~]n. 进入,入口。
4. existence[\~i^5zistEns\~]n. 存在,生存,存在物
例:The peasants depend on a good harvest for their very existence. 农民要靠丰收才能活命。
[记忆技巧]词源分析记忆:ex-外,出,(省略s)ist立,-ence名词后缀“to stand forth”“to appear”存在。同源词有:exist[\~i^5zist\~]v. 存在;existent[\~i^5zistEnt\~]a. 存在的
[常用词组]come into existence 产生,出现。
5. apart[\~E5pB:t\~]adv. 相距,分开
例:The two houses stood 500 metres apart. 这两所房子相距500米。
apart表示距离或状态上的分离。He was standing a bit apart from the rest of us. 他站在离我们有点远的地方。
[记忆技巧]a-加强意义,part分,部分
[常用词组]apart from除去
6. turn away 把……打发走
例:A doctot cannot turn away a dying man. 医生是不能见死不救的。
turn后可接不同的介词,分别表示不同的意思。turn off离开一条路而走另一条路,turn sb. off 使某人厌烦或厌恶。turn out在场,集合;turn sb. out培养出某人。turn back往回走。
四.易混易错词语辨析
1.辨析effect与result:
两词均表示“结果”之义,但修辞色彩不同。
effect 结果,效果,强调因果关系,它的效果是直接的,其中含有客观的、几乎是科学的意味。Our warning produced no effect on her at all.
我们的警告对她一点作用也没有。
result表示由某事所产生的结果,较effect 普通,侧重指出两事件之间有着严格的因果关系,它常提示为达到某一目标而有意采取的某一行动,该行动的结果就称为result。All our hard work produced little or no result. 我们辛苦努力无甚斤结果。
2.辨析zone与region:
zone其正确意义是圆形或弧形地带,尤指地球上按温度划分的五个地带。用于一般意义时,也指具有某种特征的其他地区。
the frigid (temperate,torrid) zone寒(温、热)带,the business zone of a city
城市中的商业区。region常指地球上、大气中或人体上特征鲜明、自成一体的地方,也指国家里的某一地区(可指行政区),但不指城市中的地段。the Asia-Pacific region 亚太地区,the forest region林区, the abdominal region 腹部。
3.辨析avenue与street:
avenue指城市中宽敞大街(有的avenue末端是一栋豪华的住宅),两旁树木成行,美观气派。用于比喻时,有通往某处的“康庄大道”的意思。在一些国家,横贯南北的 叫做advenue,东西方向的则叫做street。the famed was
Champs -Elysees著名的香舍丽榭大街。street是城市内街道的总称,也具体指市内某一条街,它们一般路面平整,两旁铺设了人行道。a street map of York 约克城的街道地图。He met a friend in the street.他在街上遇到一个朋友。
4.辨析plain与plane:
这是一对同音异义词,均可用作名词合形容词。plain作名词解释时,表示平原,平地。a bare plain光秃秃的平原,plain用作形容词时,意为清楚的,坦直的,朴素的。It is quite to all that he lied.他说了谎,这大家都清楚。/She is always in plain clothes.她一向穿着朴素。plane作名词解释时,意为平面、飞机、水准;用作形容词时,表示平坦的、平面的。They enjoy the high plane of civilization.他们享有高度的文明。/Please tell me what the plane curve means.请告诉我这条平面曲线是什么意思。

Unit 14 Roots
一、课文疑难详解
1. Journey into the unknown走向未知世界的旅行
其中the unknown是“the + 过去分词”结构,意思是the place which is unknown to the travelers(旅行者所不知道的去处)。文章描述了非洲黑人被贩运至美洲当奴隶的残酷景象。
在英语中,有些形容词加上定冠词the来代表整个类别的人,或代表其抽象概念。如:
the old = the old people 老人
the blind = the blind people 盲人
the beautiful = the beautiful things 美的事物(抽象概念)
the good = the good things 好的东西(抽象概念)
“the + 过去分词”同“the + 形容词”一样,也可以代表整个类别的人或某一抽象概念。例如:
the wounded = the wounded people 伤员
the unemployed = the unemployed people 失业者
the unknown = the unknowned world 未知世界
有些形容词与定冠词一起构成名词化的形容词时,应注意以下几种情况:
1) 表示一类人。如定冠词the加blind,brave,deaf,learned,sick,weak,wise等等。它们常表示复数意义,后面用复数动词。例如:
The old care for the young and the young respect the old. 年长者关心年轻人,年轻人尊敬年长者。
2) 但有些过去分词作形容词与定冠词连用指个别人,其后用单数动词。例如:
The accused was soon acquitted. 被告随即被宣告无罪。
3) 表示一种抽象的概念,后面用单数动词。例如:
The new is sure to replace the old. 新事物一定会代替旧事物。
2. Born a free man, he was now in chains. 他生来本是个自由人,如今却戴上了镣铐。
“Born a free man...”是一个过去分词短语,作状语,相当于一个让步状语从句“Though he had been born a free man, ...”
in chains上着镣铐;在囚禁中;一环接一环
Those prisoners in chains were to be transferred to another prison. 那些戴着镣铐的囚犯将被转移到另一个监狱里去。
He often smokes in chains when he is deep thinking. 他在沉思时常喜欢一支接一支地吸烟。
be born + adj./n. 生来就是……;天生就是……
He was born blind/deaf/poor. 他生来就眼瞎/耳聋/穷。
He was born a poet/a soldier/a singer. 他生来就是一个诗人/军人/歌手。
Helen Keller was not born deaf and blikd. She lost her sight and hearing after a terrible illness. 海伦.凯勒不是生来就耳聋、眼瞎的。是在一场大病之后她失去了视力和听力。
3. Kunta knew it was the middle of the night, for through the small open window high in the wall he couldsee stars. 昆塔知道已经是半夜了,因为通过墙上方开着的小窗,他看到了星星。
句中的for作“因为”解,是并列连词,连接两个并列的分句,表示附加的或推断的理由。昆塔之所以知道是半夜了,是根据“看到了星星”而推断出来的。
注意because和for的区别。because和for都有“因为”的意思,但because是从属连词,连接表示原因的状语从句,它所表示的原因是直接的理由;而for是并列连词,连接两个并列的分句,它所表示的原因是附加的或推断的理由。试比较:
The light went out, because the oil was out. 因为油用完了,所以灯灭了。(直接的原因)
The oil must be out, for the light went out. 油想必用完了,因为灯灭了。(推断的理由)
He is loved by all, because he is smart and honest. 因为他诚实而聪明,所以大家都喜欢他。(直接的原因)
He must be smart and honest, for he is loved by all. 他想必诚实而聪明,因为大家都喜欢他。(推断的理由)
It seems rather cold outside, for many people have put on sweaters. 外面看起来相当冷,因为很多人都穿了毛衣。(推断的理由)
4. Kunta had been seized in the forest and then hit on the head with a hard object. 昆塔在森林里被抓以后,他的头部被一个硬东西打了一下。
句中hit是过去分词,作“被打”“被击中”解。本句的后半句相当于一个被动句:... and then Kunta had been hit on the head with a hard object. 它的主动句应是:... and then somebody had hit him on the head with a hard object. (某人用一个硬的东西打了他的头部。)
注意上述主动句中的“him him on the head”结构。这是英语的习惯表达法。汉语说“打某人的头/肩/背/脸/眼……”,英语则常常用“hit + sb. + on/in + the + 身体部位”这样的结构(其中的定冠词不可用物主代词代替)。如果打在坚硬结实的部位(如head,shoulder,back等),前面介词常用on;如果打在柔软多肉的部位,前面常介词in。例如:
John hit him on the head/shoulder/back. 约翰打了他的头/肩/背。(不用on his head……)
John hit him in the face/eyes/right leg. 约翰打了他的脸/眼/右腿。(不用in his face……)
Mr. Crosette patted him affectionately on the head. 克罗塞特先生慈爱地拍了拍他的头。
类似的例子还有:
I led the child by the hand crossing the road. 我牵着孩子的手过了马路。
The poiceman caught the thief by the collar. 警察抓住了小偷的衣领。
5. He reasoned with them, and tried to persuade them to set him free. 他跟这些人讲道理,试图说服他们把他放了。
reason with sb. 和……讲道理。例如:
Yuo should reason with the child instead of just telling hm to obey. 你应该跟孩子讲道理,而不要让他只是一味地服从。
It was no use reasoning with them. 和他们讲道理也没有用。
6. The men took him in their boat to the castle on the coast where he was now held prisoner. 这些人用船把他送到海岸上的城堡里,如今他被囚禁在这儿。
be held prisoner 是“被监禁”的意思。也可以说be kept prisoner。在名词prisoner前不用冠词。例如:
In his last years, Napoleon was kept prisoner on a lonely small island in the Atlantic. 在拿破仑最后的岁月里,他被囚禁在大西洋中的一个偏僻的小岛上。
He failed to run away and was taken prisoner all his life. 他没能逃脱而被终身监禁。
7. What was to become of them all, he woundered. 他们这些人怎么样呢?他感到纳闷。
become of sb./sth. 意为“某人/某事的结果,情况,遭遇”。只用在直接问句或间接问句中。例如:
Kunta and the other blacks didn't know what would become of them. 昆塔和其他一些黑人不知道他们将会怎样。
I don't know what will become of me when I am out of work. 我不知道我失业以后会怎样。
People in the village woundered what had become of Kunta Kinte. 村子里的人想知道昆塔.肯特究竟怎么样报。
I don't know what at last became of their experment yesterday. 我不知道他们昨天的实验最后究竟怎样了。
8. Worse was to come. 更糟的事情就要发生了。
句中的worse是不可数名词,作“更糟的事/情况”解。例如:
I have worse to tell you. 我还有更糟的情况要告诉你。
They still have worse to face. 他们还有更糟的情形需要面对。
I'm sorry to say that he is going from bad worse. 很遗憾,他的情形是每况愈下。
He was robbed of right for doing scientific research, butt worse followed. He soon became a man without nationality. 他被剥夺了进行科研的权利,接着又发生了更糟糕的事——他居了没有国籍的人。
worse通常是形容词bad/ill的比较级,作“更坏”“(病情)更重”解,例如:
I got a cold that day, and soon I got worse. 那天我感冒了,不久就更厉害了。
The situation is getting worse and worse. 情况越来越糟了。
9. A few days later about 140 balck people were taken and put on a tall sailing ship waiting off the coast. 几天后,大约140名黑人被带上了一艘停靠在海边上的大帆船上。
句中“waiting off the coast”是动词V-ing形式短语,作定语,修饰前边的名词ship。这个短语相当于一个定语从句“which waited off the coast”。例如:
The ship sailing along the coast is from London. (= The ship which is sailing along the coast is from London.)沿着海岸行驶的这艘大船来自伦敦。
The World Trade Center, an office building for over 1,200 firms employing 50,000 people is even higher at 411 meters.(= The World Trade Center, an office building for over 1,200 firms which employ 50,000 people is even higher at 411 metes.)世界贸易中心更高,有411米。它是一座办公大楼,楼里有雇佣了约5万雇员的1200多家公司。
Thee is a journalist and write living in America whose name is Alex Haley. (= There is a journalist and writer who lives in America whose name is Alex Haley.) 有一位住在美国的记者兼作家,名叫亚历克斯.哈利。
off在此处是介词,意思是“离……不远的”。如:
They once lived on an island off the coast of France. 他们曾住在法国沿海的一个岛屿上。
动词V-ing形式短语作定语时,常位于它所修饰的名词后;但单个的动词V-ing形式做定语时,通常位于它所修饰的名词前。本句的“a tall sailing ship”中的sailing就是位于它所修饰的名词ship之前。例如:
a sailing ship = a ship for sailing 帆船
a sleeping car = a car for sleeping 卧车
a walking stick = a stick for walking 手杖
a swimmng pool = a pool for swimming 游泳池
10. Once on the boat, they were taken below and their chains were fixed to two bars that ran the length of the ship. 一上了船,他们就被带进了底舱,他们的镣铐就被拴在两根从船的一头伸到另一头的铁杆上。
1) “Once on the boat, ...”是时间状语从句“Once they were on the boat, ...”的省略。once是连词,作“一旦……就……(as soon as)”解。当从句中的主语与主句中的主语相同,而从句中的谓语动词是be时,则从句中的主语和谓语都可以省略。例如:
Once (you are) in New York, you'd better go to meet George at once. 你一到纽约,最好马上去见乔治。
Once (He was) in theexamination hall, he forgot everything, including some key rules. 他一进考场就什么都忘了,包括一些主要的规则。
Once (it is) read, the story will never be forgotten easily. 这个故事一经读过,就不容易被忘记。
2) “... that ran the length of the ship”是限定性定语从句,修饰先词bars。从句中的动词run作“延伸”解(= stretch/extend)。这个定语从句可以释义为:“...(bars) that stretched as long as the ship”。
动词run的词义很多,基本词义是“跑”“逃”。其引申的词义可作“扩展”“延伸”解。例如:
The Great Wall of China, the longest wall in the world, runs across north China like a huge dragon. 中国的长城,世界上最长的城墙,像一条巨龙,逶迤在中国的北部。
The stream runs through the village. 这条小河穿过村庄。
The No. 2 Bus runs round the city. 2路公共汽车走环城线。
11. Once in a while sailors came down, Kunta thought, to carry sick men upstairs for treatment. 偶而水手下来,昆塔猜想是把生病的人抬上去进行治疗。
1) 句中的“Kunta thought”是插入语,用以对句子作附加的解释。说明“水手抬病号到船甲板上进行治疗”只是昆塔的想法。插入语可以插在句子中间,也可以放在句子后面。例如:
The live concert last night, I think, was very great. 昨晚的现场音乐会我觉得很棒。
That book, it seems, is very well written. 这本书看来写得不错。
That will be a good beginning, I hope. 希望这是一个良好的开端。
This is all we have left, you see.  我们就剩下这些了,你瞧。
2) once in a while偶尔(occasionally);有时(sometimes but not very often);每隔一些时候(from time to time)。例如:
Nowadays people don't often go out for movies. They only go out for it once in a while. 现在人们都不太外出看电影了,他们只是偶尔为之。
Once in a while there was a nose outside when he was sleeping. 他在睡觉时,隔不多久门外就有一阵嘈杂声。
Once in a while the wounded soldier would cry with pain, but usually he remained in silence. 这位受伤的士兵有时会痛得喊叫,但通常他总是沉默不语。
12. Roots 根
《根》Roots是70年代美国一本畅销书的书名。它是由美国作家亚历克斯.哈利(Alex Haley)根据他在非洲探寻家庭渊源的故事写成的小说式家史。书中描绘了昆塔.肯特在非洲的自由人生活,以及他从非洲被白人奴隶贩子掳到美国和他的后代在美国奴隶制下的苦难生活历程。该书从一个黑人家庭七代的经历和感受揭露了美国历史上残酷的黑人奴隶制。这部作品被改编成电视剧后,激发了上百万美国黑人的寻根思想,衍生出独特的“根”现象。
13. Alex Haley亚历克斯.哈利
亚历克斯.哈利(Alex Haley)1921年8月11日出生于纽约。1939年加入美国海岸警备队。服役20年间,由于他是黑人,只能在军舰上当厨师。但其间他通过勤学苦练,成为一名记者和作家。1959年退役后,成为专职作家。60年代中期,哈利开始研究他的家史,深入非洲各地寻根。经过12年的艰苦探索和研究,追溯到他的第七代祖先昆塔.肯特。最后于1976年,哈利用小说体裁写成了他自己跨越七代人的家庭史《根》,并于1977年获普立策奖,一举闻名于世。
14. His newspaper provided him with some money in order that he might travel to Gambi for his research. 他的报社给他提供了一些资金,以便他可以去冈比亚进行研究。
1) provide sb. with sth. 给某人提供某物。例如:
The Hope Project has provided many poor children with the chance to go back to school again. 希望工程已经为许多贫穷的孩子提供了重返校园的机会。
The government is trying to provide the unemployed with a variety of jobs. 政府正力图给失业者提供各种各样的就业机会。
During the long winters, we are well provided with food and clothing. 在漫长的冬季,我们的粮食和衣物齐备无缺。
2) in order that “为了;以便;目的在于”,相当于so that。that后引导一个表示目的的状语从句。在过去时的句子中,in order that/so that后的从句中一般用should/could/would,偶尔也用might(用于较正式的文体中)。例如:
They came in quietly in order that they shouldn't wake the children. 他们轻轻地进来,以免把孩子吵醒。
He often takes some money with him in order that he can buy something he needs. 他常随身带点儿钱,以便能买自己需要的东西。
Builders worked day and night in order that the hospital might be completed in time. 建筑工人夜以继日地干活,以便能及时把医院建成。
We are calling you now in order that you may be ready for the travel. 我们现在打电话给你,以便你作好旅行的准备。
in order to和in order that都是“为了;以便”,但前者跟动词原形,后者跟从句。这两个结构可以在主从句主语一致的情况下互换。如上面一、二两个例句,可以用“in order to”改写成以下两个句子,其意思不变。
They came in quietly in order not to wake the children.
In order to buy something he needs he often taken some money with him.
15. The moment he reached the country, he started his search. 他一到冈比亚,就开始了探寻工作。
“the moment”意思是“一……就……”,相当于as soon as的用法,作连词,用于连接一个表示时间的状语从句。例如:
I recognized the speaker the moment he appeared in the lecture hall. 当演讲者一走入演讲大厅,我就认出了他。
The moment he spoke, I knew that there was no hope. 他一开口说话,我就知道没有希望了。
The moment he got into the office, he told us the exciting news. 他一走进办公室,就告诉了我们这条激动人心的消息。
“the moment”原本是名词,但可以用作连词。类似的名词如the minute;the second也可以这样用。此外,在英国英语中,副词immediately,directly也可以用作连词,相当于as soon as。例如:
Learning begins the minute man is born. 学习是从人一出生的那一刻就开始了的。
Telephone us immediately you get there. 你一到那儿,就打电话告诉我们。
16. A few people in each group are given the task of remembering the group's family history that goes back over centuries. 每一个家庭都有少数几个人担任记忆延续了几个世纪的家史的任务。
“that goes back over centuries”是限制性定语从句,修饰先行词famly history。从句中的短语动词go back作“追溯”解,有“从过去某个时候延续至今”的意思(to have lasted since an earlier time)。例如;
My family goes back 300 years, while his family goes back to the 15th century. 我的家庭延续了300年,而他的家庭可追溯到15世纪。
go back还有“回顾”的意思(return in time, in one's thought)。例如:
Whenever Grandpa talks, he always likes to go back to his younger days. 爷爷一谈起话来,总喜欢回忆他的年轻时代。
二、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展
例:1. __ you've got a chance, you might as well make full use of it.
(1999年全国高考及广东高考题)
A. Now that B. After C. Although D.As soon as
简析:Now that引导让步状语从句。意思是“既然...”。这句话的意思是“既然你得到一个机会,你就有可能很好地利用它”。 Although虽然引导的也是让步状语从句,但其意思是“虽然... ”,与句意不符。After和As soon as
引导的是时间状语。前者的意思是“在...之后”,后者的意思是“一...就...“。
答案是A。
例:2.I shall never forget those years __ I lived the country with the farmers, __
has a great effect on my life. (1994 年上海市高考题)
A. that;which B.when;which C. which;that D.when;who
简析:这是一个含有两个定语从句的句子。第一个句子的先行词是those years, 表示时间,所以要用关系副词when; 第二个句子含有一个非限定性定语从句,所以要用关系代词which。which所修饰的先行词仍然是those years。答案是B。
例:3.In the office, I never seem to have time until 5:30 p.m. __ many people have got home. (1995年上海市高考题)
A. whose time B. that C. on which D.by which
简析:这是一个非限定性定语从句。介词by的意思是“到那时为止”。这句话的意思是:“在办公室里,我几乎直到下午5:30才有空,那时,许多人都已回家了。”又因其后为完成时态,所以用by which, 介词on后接具体日期,如:on Sunday, on the morning of July, on June 1 等等。答案D。
例:4.___everybody knows about it, I don't want to talk any more.
(1999年上海市高考题)
A. For B. Even C. Since D. However
简析:这句话的意思是“因为每个人都知道了这件事,我不想再多说什么”。因此要用since引导原因状语从句。for是并列连词,它所引导的句子必须放在主语后面,附带说明理由。由于它不能放在主句前,所以不能作答案。even的意思是“甚至”,与后句话的意思矛盾;however后接形容词,引导让步状语从句。答案选C。
例:5.One more week, __ we will accomplish the task. (1999年上海市高考题)
A. or    B. so that    C. and   D. if
简析:这是个祈使句。完整的句子是:Give us more week, and we'll accomplish the task.(再给一周时间,我们将完成任务。)“祈使句+and+句子”的意思是“做某事,就...”;祈使句+or+句子“的意思是“做某事,否则...”。so that 引导的结果状语从句或目的状语从句;If引导的是条件状语从句。它们的主句不能是祈使句。 答案是C.
例:6. I know nothing about the young lady __ she is from Beijing.
(2000年上海市高考题)
A. expect  B. except for C. except that D. besides
简析:except后接名词或代词,意思是“除...之外”,表示从整体中除掉部分。except for 后接名词或代词,意思是“除...之外”,表示两种事物的类比。如:Your composition is very good, except for some mistake.作文和错误是两个概念。except that引导句子,besides后接名词或代词,意思是“除...以外还有”。 “She is from Beijing” 是一个句子,只有except that 才能引导从句,答案D。
三、本单元生词详解
1. lie[\~lai\~]v. 躺,位于
例:The man lay in prison for 10 years. 这个人在狱中蹲了十年。
本句着重讲lie的形近、同音词。laid是lay(放置)的过去式形式。lied是lie(说谎)的过去式及过去分词形式,lying是lie的现在分词形式。
[记忆技巧]形近词比较记忆:lay[\~lei\~]v. 放置;lie[\~lai\~]v. 说谎
[常用词组]lie in在于
2. daylight[\~5deilait\~]n. 白昼,黎明
例:Can we reach our destination by daylight?  我们能在天黑以前到达目的地吗?
by daylight在此指天黑前。
[记忆技巧]同义词集合记忆:day[\~dei\~]n. 白昼,白天;daytime[\~5deItaIm\~]n. 日间,白昼
[常用词组]by daylight 在白天;在天黑前/at (before) daylight 黎明时(前)
3. persuade[\~pE5sweid\~]v. 劝说,说服
例:I was unableto persuade him to do as I said. 我没能说服他按我说的去做。
persuade sb to do sth 表示劝说某人去做某事。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:satisfy[\~5sAtisfai\~]v. 满足;convince[\~kEn5vins\~]v. 使信服;形近词比较记忆:pervade[\~pE(:)5veid\~]v.
4. reason[\~5ri:zn\~]v. 推理,思考
例:Man's ability to reason makes him different from the animals. 人的思考能力使人异于动物。
[记忆技巧]形近词比较记忆:season[\~5si:zn\~]n. 季节
[常用词组]reason with sb. 与某人辩论
5. wonder[\~5wQndE\~]v. 想知道,对……感到疑惑
例:I wonder how you came to miss the way. 我不明白你究竟是怎样迷路的。
[记忆技巧]派生词记忆:wonderful[\~5wQndEful\~]a. 奇妙的
同义词比较记忆:think[\~WiNk\~]v. 想,认为;question[\~5kwestFEn\~]v. 怀疑
[常用词组]wonder at/about sth. 对某事物感到惊奇
6. worthwhile[\~5wE:T5(h)wail\~]a. 值得的
例:These results were not worthwhile. 这些结果并不合算。
worthwhile 指值得花时间(或精力)。
[记忆技巧]派生词记忆:worth[\~wE:W\~]a. 值得尊重,有价值;worthless[\~5w\:WlIs\~]a. 无价值,无用的;worthy[\~5wE:Ti\~]a. 有价值的,可尊敬的
四、易混易错词语辨析
1.辨析cloth(s)与 clothes:
cloth表示布料,通常不可数,可作可数时,指某一特定用途的布。a face cloth一条毛巾two table cloths两块桌布。This factory produces cloths of various kinds.这家工厂生产各种各样的布。 clothes是衣服的总称,包括上下衣、内外衣等。She spent too much money on clothes.她在衣着上花钱太多。clothes在任何时候都是复数形式,说一件衣服不能讲a new clothes,必须具体说明指明是:a new coat还是 a new shirt.
2.辨析hear与listen to:
两个表达方式均与听有关,但在意义上有一定的区别。hear表示听到,表示听到这个结果,但不一定是有意识的。Then I heard a knock on the door.然后我听到了敲门声。listen to表示倾听,含有注意或有意识去听的意味,侧重听这一动作本身,至于听到与否,则未置可否。I was listening to music when he came in。他进来时,我正在听音乐。它们常出现在如下短语中:hear from接到某人的信,hear of听说,listen for倾听,listen in 收听、窃听电话。
3. 辨析journey与trip:
journey旅行,旅程,适用范围较广,可指陆海空旅行,它路线长,费时多,但旅程总是安排了预定的地点,并不表示返回原出发点。
He decided to make a journey to  Canada by car.
他决定乘汽车前往加拿大。常用短语有:make a  journey (to) 到(某地)旅行,start a journey出发,动身,take a journey前往某处。trip旅行,航行。
用法比较随便,有时可指一个journey,它不管旅行目的,可以是个人纯娱乐的游玩,也可以是因公区做的短期旅行。在trip中,人们可采用任何交通工具。The trip can be done comfortably in five days.这次旅行有五天时间就可以玩得很舒服了。
4.辨析story与history:
两词都以tory结尾,都与事件有关。但是, story故事,传记,报道,常指讲述或笔述的那些实际上可能发生过或可能还没发生的一系列相关联的事件。story可长可短,体裁多样(如试体或散文体)。如:He is reading the story of ancient Greece.他在阅读古代希腊史话。The man's story of the accient was not convincing.这人对那事故的叙述难以令人相信。history只指过去的史实,即以历史人物和历史事件为依据,是非虚构的历史。如:
The wheel of history can not be turned back.历史的车轮不能倒转。/
The Great Wall has a history of over twenty centuries.
长城有两千年的历史。

Unit 15 Study skills
一、课文疑难详解
1. Francis Bacon弗朗西斯.培根(1561-1626)
英国哲学家,“英国唯物主义和整个现代实验科学的真正鼻祖”(马克思语)。曾任掌玺大臣,升大法官,授子爵。反对经院哲学的唯心主义,认为哲学使人与自然隔绝,束缚于教条和权威之下,不能获得真正的知识;主张打破“偶像”铲除各种幻象和偏见;强调发展自然科学的重要,提出知识就是力量,指出自然界是物质的,物质是多种多样的,能动的;认为一切知识来源于感觉,而感觉是可靠的……这些都是他作为哲学家所作出的历史贡献。除了在哲学方面的贡献外,弗朗西斯.培根还是散文、历史、法学、教育学、心理学等方面都有所建树的著名学者。他的散文被认为“堪与莎士比亚的诗歌并负盛名”,他的历史著作被誉为“富有哲学意味的史学楷模”,他的教育思想开了近代教育之先声,他还被誉为近代心理学的鼻祖。
2. On the subject of reading, Francis Bacon, who lived about the same time as Shakespeare, wrote these words: "Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and digested." 关于阅读这个题目,弗朗西斯.培根(莎士比亚同时代的人)曾经写过这样的话:“有些书是应当尝尝滋味的,有些书是应当吞下去的,有少数书是应当咀嚼和消化的。”
“Some books are bo be tasted, others to be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested.”这是弗朗西斯.培根在他的“论学问”一文中的一句名言。培根的《论说文集》(Essays)是世界上一本划时代的名著,共收论文58篇,“论学问”就是其中之一。培根在这里把读书比作吃东西。有的食物只要尝一尝就够了(to be tasted);有的食物无需咀嚼,可以大口大口地吞食(to be swallowed);只有少数食物需要细嚼慢咽,好好消化(to be chewed and digested)。语名精炼,比喻深刻。
本句用了“be + 不定式的被动式”结构(are to be tasted/swallowed/chewed and digested)。
这种结构表示“某事应当/必须被……”等意思,常用在通知和说明书里。例如:
The books you borrowed are to be returned before July 5. 你所借的图书必须于七月五日前归还。
The medicine is to be taken three times a day after meals. 此药一日三次,饭后服。
(This form is) to be filled in ink. (此表)须用墨水填写。
“be + 不定式”结构通常用来表示“按计划或安排将要作的事情”,或表示上级对下级,父母对子女“下达命令”。例如:
The train from Guangzhou is to arrive in Beijing at 10:25 a.m. 从广州方向来的火车将于上午十点二十五分到达北京。
You are to finish all your homework before you go out to play football or watch TV. 你必须在外出踢球或看电视之前把所有的作业完成。
3. It is enough to dip into it and read bits here and there. 这种书只要浏览一下,这儿读一点,那儿读一点,也就够了。
短语动词dip into原作“把(手)探入去取某物”或“蘸”解。本句中的dip into则作“浏览”“翻阅”或“稍加探究”解。例如:
Each student dipped a finger into the mixture and sucked it. 每个学生都把手指伸入混合液,然后吮吸了一下。
She keeps dipping into the bag of sweet. 她不断地把手伸入袋内拿糖吃。
I haven't read that book seriously. I've only dipped into it. 我没有认真读过那本书,只不过随便翻阅了一下。
I can't say I know a great about American history. I have just dipped into one or two books on the subject. 我不能说我对美国历史了解很多,我不过翻阅了一下有关这个学科的一两本书而已。
4. But not all stories belong to this class. 但是并非所有的故事书都属于这一类。
1) not与all,every等不定代词连用时,表示部分否定。例如:
Not all bamboo grows tall. 并非所有的竹子都长得高。
All is not gold that glitters. 闪光的并非都是金子。
He doesn't know everyone in the hall. 他并非认识大厅里的每一个人。
2) class作“班级、课堂”的意思,也有“阶级、阶层;等级、类别”等意义。例如:
Society could be divided into upper, middle and lower classes. Most people in Japan think they belong to the middle classes. 社会大致可分为上、中、下三个不同阶层。大多数日本人认为自己属于中产阶级。
He always travels first - class on the plane. 他乘飞机旅行时总坐头等舱。
He has written lots of novels, but we only find him a novelist second class. 他写了很多小说,但我们认为他只是个二流的小说家。
5. Then, if you wish, you can read it once again more slowly, using a dictionary when necessary. 然后,如果你愿意的话,你可以慢一些再读一遍,必要时可以查查词典。
在状语从句中,当动词是be,从句主语与主句主语相同或是it时,常省略主语和be。例如:
If (it is) possible, please rewrite this composition. 如有可能,请把这篇作文改写一下。
When (you are) in doubt, don't hesitate to ask me. 如有疑问,问我就是了。
Although (he was) tired, he kept on working hard. 他尽管很累,还是努力坚持工作。
6. Second, do not stop every time you come to a word phrase you do not know. 其次,不要一碰到不认为的单词或短语就停下来。
1) 这是一个复合句。主句是do not stop,后跟时间状语从句“every time you come to a word or phrase”,再后是一个省略了关系代词which的定语从句“you do not know”,修饰先行词word and phrase。
2) 名词词组every time(每次,每回)可以用作从属连词,引出表示时间的状语从句,意思是“每一……就……”。例如:
Every time I catch a cold, I have a terrble pain all over. 每次感冒我浑身就疼得厉害。
He would visit his teacher every time he came to Beijing. 每次他来北京,总要拜访他的老师。
Copy it down every time you come a beautiful sentence. 每当你碰到一个漂亮的句子就把它抄下来。
7. Are there any hobbies or sports you particularly like? If so, look out for books, articles or magazines about them. 你有什么特别喜欢的癖好或体育运动吗?如果有,你就该找一些有关的书籍、文章或杂志来读。
1) “If so”(如果是这样)是承接上文而来的一个省略结构,意思相当于If there are any hobbies or sports which you particularly like。例如:
You said George was honest. If so, I had misjudged him, and I should say apology. 你说乔治是诚实的。如果是这样,那么是我看错了他,我应当说道歉。
It is reported that the situation there is quite serious. If so, we should get prepared immediately. 据说,那儿的情况十分严重,如果是这样,我们就该立即作好准备。
2) look out for作“寻找”“搜寻”(to try to find sb./sth. by searching;to try to get sth.)解。例如:
Will you please go to the station and look out for Mr. Johnson? 请你到火车站找一下约翰逊先生好吗?
The policemen in the forest are looking out for escaped prisoners. 警察正在森林里搜寻逃犯。
He has been looking out for a new job for half a year. 半年来他一直在寻找新的工作。
I'm looking for a book on the life of Francis Bacon. 我在打一本关于弗朗西斯.培根生平的书。
8. One refers to the type of listening practice which we do when learning a foreign language. 一个是指我们学习外语时所作的那种听力练习。
1) 句中的短语动词refer to作“指……而言”,“谈到”解。例如:
What I said just now wasn't referring to you. 我刚才说的话不是指你。
What does the phrase "valuable information" refer to? “有价值的信息”指的是什么?
These sentences do refer to the cause, but to the results. 这几个句子指的不是原因,而是结果。
2) “... when learning a foreign language”是“... when we learn a foreign language”的省略。当when从句中的主语和主句中的主语相同时,从句中的主语可以省略,而用“when + v.-ing”的结构。例如:
I knew the teacher was referrin to Jack when speaking of a bright boy. (= ... when he spoke of a bright boy.)当老师说到一个聪明的孩子时,我就知道他指的是杰克。
You'd better turn down the music when sleeping. (= ... when you sleep.) 睡觉时,你最好把音乐开小一点儿。
Use your tape recorder when doing listening practice. (= ... when you do listening practice.) 进行听力练习时,请用磁带录音机。
9. The more we practice, the bigger we get at listeningto speech in a foreign language. 练习得越多,就越能更好地理解所听到的外语谈话。
1) “The + 比较级...,the + 比较级...”这个句子结构的意思是:越……,就越……。从结构上说,第一个“The + 比较级...”是表示比较的状语从句,第二个“the + 比较级...”是主句,从意义上说,这个句型表示从句和主句的两个变化是同时进行的。例如:
The more he has, the more he wants. 他越有越贪。
The older he gets, the stronger he looks. 他越老越显得健壮。
The higher you climb, the farther you'll see. 登得越高,看得越远。
The harder you work, the better you'll be paid. 你越努力工作,得到的报酬就越多。
2) 句中的短语动词get at作“理解、领会、掌握”解。
This article is hard to get at. 这篇文章很难理解。
We had great difficulty in getting at the real meaning of his words. 我们很难领会他这些话的真正含义。
It is not easy to get at the meaning of every idiom in English. 要弄懂每个英语习语的意思是不容易的。
10. So when you listen to someone, you should listen with complete attention, and with complete respect for the other person. 因此,当你听某人说话时,你应全心全意地听,对别人十分尊重。
两个介词with的短语(with complete attention和with complete respect)都是作为方式状语,修饰谓语动词listen。
句中的respect是不可数名词,作“尊敬”解。表达“对某人(表示)尊敬”,常用show/have respect to/for sb. 的结构。例如:
Youth should always show respect to the old. 年轻人应该永远尊敬老年人。
I've great respect for scientists, which started when I was very young. 我对科学家非常尊敬,这是从我很小的时候就开始了的。
They have no respect for the manager. 他们对经理一点也不尊重。
respect也可以作及物动词,也作“尊重、尊敬”解。例如:
All children should respect their parents. 所有的孩子都应该尊敬父母。
Our chemistry teacher is much respected in our school. 我们的化学老师在学校里是很受人尊敬的。
You should respect the opinions of the public. 你应该尊重公众的意见。
11. Often, all we need is a good friend who will listen to us while we "talking things through". 我们常常需要的是一个好朋友,他在我们“讨论问题”的时候能够听我们谈话。
短语动词talk through作“讨论”(discuss sth.)解。含有“经过充分考虑”的意思。例如:
We talked the plan through for nearly an hour. 我们对这个计划讨论了近一个小时。
After three long meetings, the question seemed to be talked through. 经过了三次长时间的会议后,这个问题似乎已经讨论通过了。
二、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展
例:1.These oranges taste ____.           (1991年全国高考题)
A. good   B. well      C. to be good    D. to be well
简析:taste(品尝)是系动词,后接形容词,所以要填good, well作形容词,意思是“健康的”,只能形容人,不能形容物。如:He looks very well.
他看上去很健康。well还可作副词,意为“好”,修饰动词。如:He sings well.他唱得好。答案A。
例:2. John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes __ .
(1992年全国高考题。)
A. open    B. to be opened  C. to open  D. opening
简析:open既是动词,又是形容词,作动词时,意思是“打开”。例如:He opened the door and got into the house. “他打开门,走进了屋里。”
作形容词时,表示状态,意思是“开着的”。例如:I have opened the door. It's open.“ 我已经把门打开,门是开着的”。表示眼睛睁着要在keep后面接形容词作宾语补足语,所以要填open.答案A。
例:3.-Have you finished your report yet? ( 1995年全国高考题)
-No, I'll finish in ___ ten minutes.
A.another  B. other  C. more  D. less
简析:another一般情况下后接单数名词或one。意思是“另外一个”。但如果复数单词前有数词或few, several 等词,可用another修饰,意思是“另外多少个”。例如:I still be back in another few days。“他过几天回来”。答案选A。
例:4.Sarah has read lots of stories by American writers. Now she would like to read __ stories by writers from __ countries.
(1997 年全国高考题)
A. some;any  B. other; some C. other;other D. some; other
简析:这句话的意思是:“萨拉已经读了许多美国作家写的小说。现在她想读一些其它国家作家写的小说”。other后常接复数名词。前面有定冠词
the时,意思是“剩余的”;没有定冠词时,意思是“其他的”。
例如:Zhanghua and Liping passed the exam. What about the other students?
张华和李平通过了考试,其他的学生怎么样?
Like other students, he studies very hard. 像其他学生那样,他努力学习。
the others, others是代词,后面不能再接其他名词,答案D。
例:5.-Are the new rules working?(1999年全国高考题)
-Yes. __ books are stolen.
A.few B. More C. Some D. None
简析:few放在复数名词前,意思是“几乎没有”,表示否定。这句话的意思是“几乎没有书被偷”。在这个句子中几乎出现了yes,但回答的是上面提出的新的制度是否起到作用这个问题,与后面的句子没有关系。因此不能填More或Some, None是代词不能放在books前做定语。如果没有书被偷,要说“None of the books are stolen。”答案是A。
例:6.Their cheerful voice showed that they were having a __ discussion.
(1997年上海市高考题)
A. noisy B. serious C.complete D.friendly
简析:这句话的意思是“他的高兴的声音表明他们正在进行一次友好的讨论”。noisy的意思是“嘈杂的”;serious的意思是“严肃的”;complete的意思是“完全的”;和their cheerful的意思矛盾;所以不能作为答案。friendly的意思是“友好的”。答案选D。
三、本单元生词详解散
1. swallow[\~5swClEu\~]v. 吞下,咽下;吞没,淹没
例:The vessel was swallowed up by the surges. 轮船被汹涌的波涛吞没了。
swallow后接up表示使消失,吞没,吞下;淹没;摧毁。
[记忆技巧]同根词联合记忆:swallowable[\~5swClEu7Ebl\~]可吞咽的;swallower[\~5swClEuE\~]n. 吞咽者,贪吃的人
[常用词组]swallow one's words 取消前言,承认失言
2. tip[\~tip\~]n. 小费,有用的小建议,尖端
例:They decided to leave the waiter a big tip because the food and service had been excellent. 他们决定给那个招待员一大笔小费,因为食物可口,他服务得也很周到。
在国外的饭让里,如果顾客认为吃得满意,服务周到,他通常就另外给招待员一笔钱,即“小费”。
[记忆技巧]形近词比较记忆:top[\~tCp\~]n. 顶端,tap[\~tAp\~]n. 塞子,水龙头
[常用词组]on the tip of one's tongue话到嘴边或几乎想起
3. reviewer[\~rI5vju:E(r)\~]n. 评论者,书评家
例:A reviewer is someone who writes articles expressing their opinion of a book, play, film, etc. 评论家就是写文章对书、戏剧、电影等发表意见的人。
[记忆技巧]词源分析记忆:re-又,再;view看;-er……的人,者。同源词有:review[\~ri5vju:\~]v. 复习,再检查;reviewable[\~rI`vjU:Ebl\~]a. 可回顾的,可评论的,可检查的
4. appreciate[\~E5pri:Fieit\~]v. 感激,欣赏
例: I would appreciate your calling back this afternoon. 我将乐于你下午再打电话回来。
动词appreciate后应该接动名词作宾语。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:admire[\~Ed5maiE\~]v. 欣赏,钦佩
5. interrupt[\~7intE5rQpt\~]v. 打断(某人)讲话,打扰
例:Be quiet! It's rude to interrupt people when they are speaking. 安静!打断别人讲话是粗暴无礼的。
interrupt意为“打断谈话”,是及物动词。
[记忆技巧]词源分析记忆:inter,在……中间,rupt破,断,中断,打断
[常用词组]interrupt (sb./sth.)(with sth.)打断某人讲话,打岔,打扰
6. pick up拿起,拾起,见到,用汽车搭载某人或接某人
例:Trains stop here in order to pick up passengers only. 火车之所以在这里停车,只是为了让乘客上车。
pick up意为“停下来把……带走”
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:take on搭载
四、易混易错词语辨析
1.辨析enough与fairly:
这一对单词并不同义。在词性上,fairly只用作副词,enough可用作副词、形容词和名词。在用法上fairly是对程度而言,enough则可表程度,也可指数量。enough足够地(的),足够。用法上应注意:
1.用作副词时,常置于被修饰的名词或副词之后。例如:He spoke slowly enough for everyone to understand。他说得很慢。为的是让每个人都听得明白。/After a few minutes the coffee was cool enough for us to drink.几分钟之后,咖啡凉了,我们就可以喝了。
2.作定语形容词时,一般置于被修饰的名词之前,该名词常常为复数名词或不可属名词:He does not earn enough money to live on。他挣不到足够的钱来维持生活。
3.enough也可用作名词,在句中充当主语、宾语等。Enough has been said on this subject。关于这个题目说得够多了。/He could not earn enough to keep a family of four. 他挣的钱不够养活一个四口之家。
fairly主要有两层含义。1.相当地,十分,此时,fairly常与那些语义上有嘉许性的形容词或副词连用,如fairly brave (nice, good, well, pretty)等。She is rather stupid; but fairly good- looking. 她相当笨,但长得十分漂亮。
2.尚可,在这种用法中,fairly 算不上什么恭维词了。You did fairly well in your exam. 你考得不错。/This film fairly good。那电影尚好。(马马虎虎可以看)
2. 辨析finally与at last:
finally有以下两个主要含义:
1.表示发生在最后的,它能引出某事的最后一项内容,一般无感情色彩。例如:Finally I wish to thank all who helped us to complete the project。最后,我要感谢那些协助我们完成此项工程的人。
2.表示经过好久... 才,此时,finally含有决定性的或结论性的意味,并多置于动词之前,例如:After a long delay the performance finally started.
演出拖延很久,最后总算开始了。
at last语气较强,常用于某事经过很多周折,但最终还是解决了的场合,其中也含有“等候或耽误很久之后才...”之义。该词具有较浓厚的感情色彩,如不满意、焦急、放心、如愿等。如:For a long time I hesitated, but I last decided to leave that place。我踌躇了很久,但最后还是决定离开那儿。
/He has finished speaking at last。他的话可说完了。
3.辨析speech与lecture:
speech讲话,讲演,普通用语,泛指为群众所作的讲话,可以是正式的,有准备的,也可以是非正式的、无准备的。其目的都在于影响、教育或娱乐群众。该词也可指讲话稿或讲话的风格。如:an after-dinner speech餐后致词/a prepared speech 有准备的讲话/ We keep records of all their speeches. 他们的讲话我们都留有记录。/The minister's speech was sent to the newspaper in advance.部长的讲话稿事先就送到了报馆了。
lecture演讲,词源意义是宣读,现在则指有准备的专题演讲,尤指高等学校的讲课。有时带贬意,表示说教。a lecture tour巡回讲学/The socialogy class heard a lecture on prison reform. 学社会学的一班学生听了一次有关监狱改革的报告。
4.辨析chance与opportunity:
这两个词均表示“机会”之义,在一般情况下可以互换使用。chance多指事先无安排,无准备而发生的事。该词强调机会是偶然的,侥幸的,它可指一般的机会。Chance plays an important part in many card games. 在很多纸游戏中运气起着重要的作用。/By some strange chance, we found the lost boy in the forest. 一个偶然的机会,我们在森林里找到了那个丢失的孩子。/There is one chance in a thousand that he will fulfil the plan. 他实现自己计划的机会只有千分之一。常用短语:by chance 无意中/chance of lifetime千载难逢的机会/by any chance 万一,碰巧。opportunity多指对自己有利的好机会,好时机,同时也暗示要抓住这个机会以实现某种计划或抱负。We are pleased to have this opportunity of seeing the art exhibition.
能有此机会参加艺术展览会,我们十分高兴。/Opportunity makes the thief.盗贼有机可乘才能行窃。/They have more opportunities, more freedom. 他们有更多的机会,更多的自由。

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