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高中英语教材重难点:高三 Unit 21--24
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:本站整理 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2006-6-12 | 字体: |

Unit 21 Who gets the money?
一、课文疑难详解
1. Her husband had built up a large business during his lifetime and when he died ten years ago in 1989, he left all his money to his wife. 他丈夫在世时创立了一个大企业。他在十年前的1989年去世时,把他的全部的钱财都给了他妻子。
build up“建设起来;增强”,如:
We have achieved great success in the course of building up our country. 我们在国家建设事业上取得了巨大的成就。
These industries had to be built up from scratch. 这些工业都得白手起家地建设起来。
Hard work builds (up) character. 艰苦的工作能锻炼人的性格。
leave sth. to/with sb. “留给某人某物/事”,如:
Tom died and left amount of money to his son. 汤姆去世后留给儿子一大笔钱。
I'll leave everything to/with you then. 那我就把这事都托给你(办)了。
2. She didn't visit her step-mother much, though I believe that they used to speak on the phone from time to time. 她不常来看望继母,不过,我相信她们时不时地打过电话。
from time to time = once in a while 偶尔,时不时地
used to“过去常常”,只有一种形式即过去式,没有现在式,其否定式与疑问式有两种结构。
1) 在正式文体中,used to用作情态动词,构成否定式与疑问式直接用used to,如:
I used to swim in the river, but never now.(肯定式)我过去常常在这条河里游泳,但现在不了。
Used you to swim in the river? (疑问式)
I usedn't to swim in the river. (否定式)
2) 非正式文体中,used to常作实义动词,构成否定式与疑问式要用助动词did,其后接实义动词的原形use;如:
Did you use to swim in the river? (疑问式)
I didn't use to swim in the river. (否定式)
注意:区别下列三个句子中的use的不同含义:
① I used to read something before sleeping, but I don't now. 我过去常常在睡觉前读点什么,但现在不了。
② I am/get used to getting up early now. 我现在习惯于起早床了。
③ Wood can be used to make paper. 木头可以被用来造纸。
3. When my aunt was buried, Clare turned up at the service, and afterwards stayed for tea while the family's lawyer explained how my aunt's money was to be divided up. 当我姑妈下葬时,克莱尔突然出现在葬礼上,随后留下来吃午后茶点,这时候,家庭律师对我姑妈的钱财如何分配作了说明。
1) turn up “出现(= appear);(把收音机等)开大一点”,如:
The book you have lost will turn up one of these days. 你丢失的那本书有一天会出现的。
I was expectin him at ten, but he didn't turn up. 我指望他十点来的,他却没来。
Turn up the radio a little, I can hardly hear the programme. 请把收音机开大一点,节目我几乎听不见。
2) divide (up)“分,使分化”,多作及物动词,如:
How should we divide (up) our work? 我们怎么分工呢?
Please don't let such a small matter divide us. 不要让这样的小事使我们不合。
4. I want you to check out this Clare Flower and see if she has the right to get my aunt's money, because something somewhere smells funny. 我想要你调查一下这位克莱尔.弗劳尔,看看她是否有权得到我姑妈的钱,因为我感到不知道什么地方情况有点蹊跷。
1) check out 检查,核查。如:
The engineers checked out all the machines before they were put to use. 在投入使用之前,工程师们检验了所有的机械。
Would you please check out the names and numbers? 请你把这些名字和数目核对一下好吗?
2) Something(某物),somewhere(某地)用来表示不确定的某样东西或某个地方,
Do you wnat to eat something somewhere? 你想到什么地方吃点东西吗?
I think I met you somewhere. Did you use to live in Tianjin? 我似乎在哪里见过你,你在天津住过吗?
There is something in what he says. 他说的话似乎有些道理。
5. He married my aunt in 1971, so Clare would have been five years old. 他是1971年同我姑妈结婚的,因此,克莱尔想必已经五岁了。
句中的would表示猜测,作“想必是……”解,构成“would + v.”结构(想必是……)或“would + p.p.”结构(想必已经是……),用于委婉陈述自己的看法。如:
— In which year did he join the army? 他是哪一年参军的?
— It would be 1983, I think. 我想大概是一九八三年。
Jack went to America in 1985, so he would have been married for over ten years. 杰克于1985年去美国的,因此,他想必已经结婚10多年了。
6. Maybe there are some things smong your aunt's papers, like Clare's school reports, old photographs, and so on. 在你姑妈的文件中,也许有些什么东西,如克莱尔的学校成绩单、旧的照片,等等。
句中的papers作“文件”“证件”解,是可数名词,可以有单数和复数形式。如:
The paper should be signed before it becomes effective. 这份文件必须签字才能生效。
Did you leave any papers in my office? 你是否把文件丢在我办公室了?
paper作名词时,还可作“报纸”“论文”“试卷”解,有复数形式。如:
It is reported in the papers that all the entrance examination papers have been printed secretly.
paper作“纸张”解时,是不可数名词,表示数量是应用量词(如a piece/sheet of paper;three pieces/sheets of paper)。
7. When everyone had taken their place the lawyer spoke as follows. 当大家就座后,律师作了如下发言。
take one's place “坐某人的座位”(= take one's seat);代替某人的位置(= take the place of sb. 或be instead of sb.)。如:
"Take your own place, please, everyone. The bus is moving." said the driver. “请大家坐到自己的座位上去,开车了。”驾驶员说道。
Tom has a bad cold, so I'll have to take his place to attend the meeting. 汤姆得了重感冒,我得代他去开会。
8. It only remains for me to pass all the money that had to the right person. 我所要做的事只是把她所有的钱交给合法继承人。
句中“that he had”是一个定语从句,修饰先行词all the money。
It only remains for sb. to do sth. “某人所要做的只是……”,其中的remains是不及物动词,作“剩下”“留下”解。如:
It only remains for me to sign the paper that you gave me. 我所要做的事只是在你给我的文件上签字。
It only remains for him to say that he agrees to the plan. 他要做的只是说一声他同意这个计划。
9. The lawyer was brief and to the point. (= The answer of the lawyer was brief and to the point.)律师的答复简明扼要。
to the point“切题的,中肯的,扼要的”,反义词为off the point(离题的,说题外话)。如:
Your advice was very much to the point. 你的意见是非常中肯的。
He didn't speak for long, but he spoke very much to the point. 他说话不多,但都说到点子上去了。
The student got low marks for his composition, as much of it was off the point. 这个学生的作文分数很低,因为文章多半离题了。
10. She instructed in her will that if that were to happen, all the money should go to an organization for helping the blind called "Helping hand". 她在遗嘱中指示说,如果发生这种情况的话,这笔钱就该全部归于一个叫做“援助之手”的盲人救济组织。
1) 这是一个复合句。主句:She instructed in her will. 后面跟一个连词that引导的宾语从句,而从句本身又是一个复合句,其主句:all the money should go...“Helping Hand”。从句:if that were to happen。
2) 在宾语从句中包含一个if从句。这是一个虚拟语气,与将来的事实相反,其结构为:
从句:were to(should) + v.  主句:should/would + v.,如:
If I were to do it, I would do it in a different way. 要是我来做这件事,我会是另一种做法。
If it should rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. 如果明天下雨,我们就呆在家里。
二、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展
例:1.Peter_ come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet.
(1993年全国高考题)
A. must B. may C.can D. will
简析:从语法角度,A、B、C、D四个选项都可以作为答案。但从后一句的意思“但他还没有完全确定呢”,可知应选B,must come意思是“必须来”,will come意思是“将要来”,语气肯定,不符合后一句的意思。
例:2. I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I __ for her.
A. had to write it out  B. must have written it out
C.should have witten it out  D.ought to write it out
简析:这句话的意思是:“我告诉萨利如何来这儿,但是,或许我应该给她写出来。”“had to write it out”意思是“不得不写出来”;must have written
it out 意思是“(过去)一定写出来了”,是对过去发生的事的肯定判断;
should have written意思是“(过去)本来应该做而没有做”,表示对过去所做的事后悔或责备之意;ought to write it out意思是“(现在)应该写出来”。答案C。
例:3.-There were already five people in the car but they managedto take me as well.(1995年全国高考题)
A.can't be  B.shouldn't be C. mustn't have been D. couldn't have been
简析:couldn't have been (done .sth)用于对过去发生的事的判断和猜测,意思是“(过去)不可能是(做某事)”。其肯定形式是must have been (done.
sth)意思是“一定是(做了某事)”。这句话的意思是: ‘车上已有5个人了,但他们还是想办法把我带上了。’ ‘那不可能是一次舒服的旅行。’
“should't be”的意思是“不应该是”,can't be意思是“不可能是”,是对现在的判断和推测,答案D。
例:4.-I stayed at a hotel while in New York.(1998年全国高考题)
-Oh, did you? You__ with Barbara.
A.could have stayed B.could stay C.would stay D.must have stayed
简析:could have stayed意思是“(过去)可以呆在...”。在英语中,情态动词后接原形表示对现在发生的情况的判断和推测;后接have+过去分词表示对过去发生的事的判断和推测;从I stayed at a hotel while in New York。
可知,此事发生在过去,must have stayed意为:“(一定)呆在...”,与第一句意思矛盾,答案A。
例:5.Michael __ be a policeman, for he is much to short.
A. needn't B.can't C. should D.may(1994年上海市高考题)
简析:这句话的意思是“Michael不可能是警察,因为他个子太矮了。”“不可能”英语要用can't。may be a policemen的意思是“可能是警察”,与后一句矛盾;should be a policeman的意思是“应该是警察”;needn't be a policemen
的意思是“没有必要是警察”,答案是B。
例:6.I wonder how he __ that to the teacher.(1995年上海市高考题)
A. dare to say B.dare saying C.not dare say D. dared say
简析:dare是一个情态动词,它的过去式是dared, 后边要接动词原形,所以要用dared say, dared作行为动词时要用dare to do sth, 但行为动词有数的变化。这句话的主语是单数第三人称he, 其谓语的正确形式应该是dares to say,
答案为D。
三、本单元生词详解
1. manage[\~5mAnidV\~]v. 安排,处理,经营
例:After a lot of difficulties, he managed to open the door. 克服了许多困难之后,他终于把门打开了。
manage意为成功地处理了难事,即完成、达成。此动词后可跟动词不定式。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:succeed[\~sEk5si:d\~]v. 成功,继续;accomplish[\~E5kCmpliF\~]v. 完成;arrange[\~E5reindV\~]v. 安排;handle[\~5hAndl\~]v. 处理
[常用词组]manage to do sth. 设法做成了某事
2. informaiton[\~in5fC:mEl\~]n. 情报(况)、信息、通知、资料
例:The local tourist bureau will send you information about hotels in the area. 当地旅游局会告诉你有关那个地区旅馆的情况。
information后跟about或on。
[记忆技巧]同源动词联合记忆:inform[\~in5fC:m\~]v. 通知
[常用词组]a piece of information一条信息
3. permission[\~pE(:)5miFEn\~]n. 许可,准许,同意
例:Permission to leave is rarely granted. 允许早走是少有的事。
[记忆技巧]同源动词联合记忆:permit[\~pE(:)5mit\~]v. 允许
[常用词组]permission to do sth. 允许,同意
4. wealthy[\~5welWi\~]a. 富有的
例:He is a wealthy international businessman. 他是个富有的国际商人。
[记忆技巧]形近词对照记忆:healthy[\~5helWi\~]a. 健康的
5. add[\~Ad\~]v. 加,加上,加入,接着说
例:If you add your money to mine, we shall have enough. 假如你把我们俩的钱加在一起,我们便有足够的钱。
add...to(介词)...,意思是一物加于另一物,从而在数目上增加。
[记忆技巧]同源词联合记忆:addition[\~E5diFEn\~]n. 增加;additional[\~E5diFEnl\~]a. 另外的
[常用词组]add...to...增加/add to增加/add up to总共有
6. stand[\~stAnd\~]v. 站立,位于,处于
例:Although the false banknotes fooled many people, they did not stand up close examination. 虽然那些假钞票愚弄了许多人,但终究经不起严密的检查。
stand up勇敢地面对
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:set[\~set\~]v. 竖立;erect[\~i5rekt\~]v. 使竖直;remain[\~ri5mein\~]v. 保留
[常用词组]stand for代表/stand up起立,经受/stand by袖手旁观,准备行动
四、易混易错词语辨析
1.辨析famous与noted:
famous著名的。famous是用得较为广泛的词,为褒义,既可形容人,也可形容事件、地点、指为广大群众熟知喜爱的人或事。如a famous film star
著名的歌星。He is famous for his work with animals.他因对动物所进行的工作而出名。/A great crowd of people greeted the famous hero.一大群人向著名的英雄欢呼。/The women there were famous for the pots they made.那地方的女士因制造的瓶罐而闻名遐迩。如:a noted scientist著名科学家。A noted surgeon operated on him.一位有名的外科医生为他动了手术。/The room is noted for noted scholars.这房间因诸多著名学者光临而令人瞩目。/Taiwan is noted for her beauty.台湾因风光美丽而闻名。
2.辨析beautiful与handsome:
beautiful的意思是美丽的,漂亮的,是最普通的用语。可以形容人、物、景色等很多方面,表示给人以愉快的感觉。用它来形容人时,侧重与品格、精神方面,一般是形容女性,用此形容小孩时,既可形容女孩,也可形容男孩,如:she is very beautiful. 她很美丽。/What a beautiful boy! 多么漂亮的孩子!/In autumn the mountain looks beautiful.秋天山景美丽。
handsome的意思是美、漂亮,表示由于调和、匀称、雅致等而显得好看,且有英俊、端庄、端正等含义。用它形容人时,多以形容男子,很少用来形容女性。例如:He is  a handsome fellow.他是个英俊的男子。/Would you describe taht lady as beautiful or handsome?你看那妇女是漂亮还是端正?
What a handsome old building it is!那是一座多么好看的古老建筑啊!
3.辨析problem与question:
problem的意思是问题,通常指需要解决或决定的问题,尤指比较困难的问题。例如:It is a problem how to make both ends meet.如何使收支平衡,那是个问题。/I can't work out this maths problem. Can you help me?
我解答不了这道数学题,你能帮我吗?/We are going to discuss this problem at tomorrow's meeting.我们要在明天的会上讨论这个问题。question的意思也是问题,常指由于某事感到疑惑不解而提出的需要解答的问题。它也指需要 解决或决定的问题。用于此义时,含有事件、事项的意味。例如:
This is a difficult question to answer.这是个难以回答的问题。/Who took away the dictionary remains a question.谁拿走了词典还是个疑问。/Success is only a question of time.成功只是时间问题。
辨析die与pass away:
die的意思是死,是表示生命结束的一般用语。例如:He died of disease.他因病而死。/Flowers soon die if they are left without water. 花如不浇水,很快就会枯死。pass away的意思是逝世,去世,是die的委婉用语。例如:
Chairman Mao passed away on September 9, 1976in Beijing.毛主席于一九七六年九月九日在北京逝世。/Her elder sister, who had been ill for some months, passed away yesterday.她的姐姐病了几个月,昨天去世了。

Unit 22 Bees
一、课文疑难详解
1. Among the different types of bee, it is the honey bee that has most interested scientists because of the "language" they use to communicate with each other. 在不同种类的蜂中,最使科学家感兴趣的是蜜蜂,因为蜜蜂能用“语言”来交际。
“... it is the honey bee that has most interested scientists...”是一个由it引导的强调句,被强调的部分是the honey bee。句子的正常语序为:the honey bee has most interested scientists...
由it引导的强调句型是:It + be + 被强调部分 + that + 其他。动词be的时态是is还是was由原句的时态决定。如:
Mr. Smith met his old friend in the street yesterday. 史密斯先生昨天在街上遇见了他的老朋友。
此句可变为以下强调句:
It was Mr. Smith that/who met his old friend in the street yesterday. 是史密斯先生昨天在街上遇见了他的老朋友。(强调是史密斯先生,而不是别人。此句强调主语,且指人,可将that换为who。)
It was his old friend that Mr. Smith met in the street yesterday. 史密斯先生昨天在街上遇见的是他的老朋友。(强调宾语,是他的朋友,而不是别人的。)
It was in the street that Mr. Smith met his friend yesterday. 史密斯先生昨天是在街上遇见了他的老朋友。(强调地点状语,是在街上,而不是在其它地方。)
It was yesterday that Mr. Smith met his friend in the street. 史密斯先生是昨天在街上遇见了他的老朋友。(强调时间状语,是昨天,而不是其它时间)
Where was it that Mr. Smith met his friend yesterday? 史密斯先生昨天是在什么地方遇见了他的老朋友?(强调地点状语,在什么地方)
要注意区别强调句与定语从句,试比较:
1) It is this house that we lived in last year. 这是我们去年住过的那座房子。
定语从句。此句的主句为一般现在时(动词为is),从句为过去时,显然不是强调句。
2) It was in this house that we lived last year. 去年我们就是住在这座房子里。
强调句。强调地点状语in this house.
3) It was this house that we built last year. 去年我们建造的就是这座房子。
强调句。强调宾语this house.
2. The development of the modern beehive in 1851 made it possible to design experiments to research the language of honey bees. 1851年研制出新式蜂箱,使得有可能做些实验,来研究蜜蜂的语言。
此句是一个简单句,由不定式充当宾语,it作形式宾语,形容词(possible)作宾补。it作形式宾语的句型是:主语 + 及物动词 + it + 宾语补足语 + 不定式(复合结构)。如:
I found it important to learn spoken English. 我发现学英语口语很重要。
I think it hard to master a foreign language. 我认为掌握一门外语是很难的。
She feels it her duty to support her family. 她感到养家活口是她的责任。
The music made it possible for you to fall asleep. 音乐使你能够入睡。
注意此结构中,it是绝对不能用其他的词如that来替换的。
3. In order to tell the bees apart, he painted some bees with little spots of colour. 为了便于区别,他在一些蜜蜂身上点上颜色。
tell apart是短语动词(V. + adv.),作“识别、辨别”解(= tell one from another)。如:
Can you tell the two apart?这两件东西你能辨别吗?
The twins are so much alike that we can hardly tell them apart. 这对双生子长得非常相像,我们几乎辩认不出他们。
4. To his astonishment, the bee began to perform dance on the surface of the honeycomb. 使他吃惊的是,这只蜜蜂在蜂巢上跳起舞来。
此句中to one's astonishment作“使……吃惊的是”讲,在句中作状语,astonishment是抽象名词。类似的结构还有:to one's surprise/pleasure/anger等。如:
To my anger, he came late once again. 使我感到生气的是,他又一次迟到了。
To our happiness, our team has won the gold medal. 使我们感到高兴的是,我们的队赢得了金牌。
5. They trooped behind the first dancer, copying its movements. 他们成群结队地跟在第一只跳舞的蜜蜂后面,模仿它的动作。
1) troop原作名词,“一队”“一群”的意思。如:a troop of young pioneers(一队少先队员),a troop of visitor(一群参观者)。它的复数形式(troops)作“军队”解。但troop在此处作动词用,是“结队而行,成群涌向”的意思,用在句子中,句子的主语总是复数。如:
We must have our own troops. 我们必须拥有自己的军队。
The children trooped into the park. 孩子们列队走进公园。
The game was over and the players trooped home. 比赛结束了,运动员整队回家。
2) copy原作“抄写,复写”讲,此句作“模仿,效仿”讲。如:
He's busy copying his composition. 他正忙于抄写他的作文。
Please coppy my action.(= Please act as I do.)请照我这样做。
You should copy his strong points, not his weak points. 你应学他的长处,而不学他的短处。
6. But what else? = But what else did it communicate? 但是它还传递什么别的吗?
else常接在疑问代词或副词的后面,构成who else(别的谁),what else(别的什么),where else(别的什么地方)等,如:
Where else have you been to?你还去过别的什么地方吗?
Who else saw them last light?昨晚还有谁看见了他们?
7, He marked all the bees that came to the nearby feeding place blue, and all the bees that went to the fareway place were marked red. 他给所有来到附近的喂食的蜜蜂标上蓝色,给飞到远处的喂食处的蜜蜂标上红色。
faraway(远方的)与nearby(附近的)都是合成形容词,在此句中作定语。又如:a faraway froest(远处的森林),faraway times(遥远的时代);a nearby hotel(附近的旅馆),nearby hills(附近的小山)。
faraway作定语时通常连写,作表语或作状语时则分开(far away)。nearby可作定语与状语,可写成nearby, near by与near-by。如:
The house is not far away. 那座房子并不远。
He lives far away from the school. 他住得离学校很远。
I saw her going to a near-by post-box before lunch. 我看见她午饭前去附近的信箱投信。
They live nearby - less than a kilometer. 他们住在附近,不到一公里。
类似的合成形容词还有:good-looking,hard-working,leftover,low-lying,nationwide,noble-minded,radioactive,well-known,wide-spread,worldwide等。
8. They discovered that the farther away the feeding station was, the slower the dance was. 他们发现,喂食处越远,舞蹈动作的速度就越慢。
1) farther(较远,更远)是far的比较级,最高级为farthest,都是指距离而言;further指程序。如:
Our village is perhaps the farthest from the city of Beijing. 我们这个村子可能离北京城最远。
We should get further education. 我们应该接受到进一步的教育。
We can't go any farther/further. 我们不能再走了。(分别指距离与程序)
2) “the + 比较级...,the + 比较级...”的意思是:“越……,就越……”。
The higher we stand, the farther we see. 我们站得越高,就看得越远。
The more he gives his children, the more they want.他给孩子们的越多,他们想要的就越多。
The sooner you do it, the better it will be. 你越早做那事就越好。
9. So another astonishing fact came to light. 于是又发现一个令人吃惊的情况。
come to light是“发现,暴露”的意思(= to be discovered)。如:
The money didn't come to light until the old man was going to die. 这笔钱直到老人临死时才透露出来。
10. The number of wagging dances per minutes told the exact distance to the feeding place. 每分钟摆尾舞的次数表明了到喂食处的精确距离。
“The number of...”作“……的次数/数目”解。当其作句子的主语时,谓语要用单数。但是“a number of...”后跟复数名词,作“许多”(many)解,当其修饰主语时,谓语动词用复数。试比较:
The number of students in our class is 55. 我们班上的学生人数是55名。
A number of students in our class are out by the lake. 我们班有些学生到湖边去了。
11. They also found out that bees fly a maximum distance of 3.2 kilometres between their hive and a feeding place. 他们还计算出了,蜜蜂从蜂箱到喂食处的最大飞行距离为3.2公里。
fly作“飞行”讲,通常是不及物动词。如:
New planes can fly at the speed of sound. 新型飞机可以音速飞行。
此句中fly是vt.,作“飞越”解,后接地点或距离作宾语。如:
This type of plane now flies the Atlantic in a few hours. 这种类型的飞机现在只用几个小时就能飞越大西洋。
Now we have flown a distance of about 2000 km. 现在我们已经飞行了大允2000公里。
fly作vt.用时,还可作“驾驶(飞机)”“(用飞机)运送”“放(风筝)”等解。如:
He flew a fighter during the war. 战争期间他驾驶战斗机。
We hope you'll fly supplies to us immediately. (我们)希望你们立即空运给养我们。
12. It soon became clear that the straight part of the dance changed when the sun's position changed. 很快就弄清楚了,舞蹈的直线部分是随着太阳位置的改变而改变的。
此句属于由it作形式主语的句型:It + be/become + adj./n. + that-clause。如:
It is a rule that the state of matter changes when the temperature changes. 这是一个规律,物质的形态随温度的变化而变化。
It isn't good that one reads newspapers when lying in bed. 躺在床上看报是不好的。
It is important that she should come straight to me when she arrive. 她到达后要直接到我这儿来,这点很重要。
13. From this we get the expression "to make a beeline for someone or something", which means to go quickly along a straight direct course for someone or something.
从这个词又引出了一个短语“to make a beeline for someone or something”,意思是朝某人或某物径直走去。
1) make a beeline for作“走直路”“走近路”解。如:
As he spoke he made a beeline for the door. 他一边说话一边朝门口径直走去。
If you want to ctch up with the team, you'd better make a beeline for them. 如果你想赶上队伍,你最好抄近路走。
2) 动词head是“朝某方向前进”的意思,head for作“开往/前往(某地)”解。如:
We are heading toward the mountain village. 我们朝那个山村行进。
The ship is heading straight for London for repairs. 那艘船正径直开往伦敦进行修理。
二、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展
例:1.If a man ___ succeed, he must work as hard as he can.
(1995年上海市高考题)
A. will B. is to C.is going to D.should
简析:动词be与动词不定式连用,表示职责、义务、意图、约定、可能性等。这句话的意思是“如果一个人想成功,他必须尽力而为。”所以要用is to succeed的形式。注意:在条件状语从句中不能用一般将来时,所以选项A、C不能作答案,意思是B。
例:2.There was a lot of fun at yesterday party. You_ come, but why didn't you?
 (1999年上海市高考题)
A.must have B. should C.need have D.ought to have
简析:ought to have+ 过去分词的意思是“本来应该做而没有做。”这句话的意思“昨天的聚会很有趣,你本来应该来,而你为什么没有来呢?”must have+ 过去分词的意思是“(过去)一定做了某事”;should+动词原形的意思是“(现在)应该那么做”,与本题表达的时间不一致。答案为D。
例:3.My sister met him at the Grand Theatre yestersday afternoon, so he __ your lecture.     (2000年上海市高考题)
A. couldn't have attended B.needn't have attended
C.mustn't have attended D.shouldn't have attended
简析:“情态动词+不定式完成式”有各自的含义。must have done表示对过去事情的肯定推测,多用于肯定句中;needn't have done表示过去不必做某事。shouldn't have done表示过去做了本不该做的事。can(could)+have done用于否定句时, 是对过去的否定式推测,意为“绝不可能”;“不太可能”。用于疑问句时,对过去所发生的事表示怀疑。理解题中的第一分句可知“他昨天上午在the Grand Theatre,  不可能参加讲座”,答案A。
例:4.In some parts of the world, tea _ with milk and sugar.(1993年全国高考题)
A. is serving B.is served C.serves D.served
简析:这个句子的意思是:“在世界上一些地方,茶是和牛奶、糖一块儿供应的”。谓语动词要用被动语态。所以选B,is served, serve既可以作及物动词,也可以作不及物动词。作及物动词时,意为“服务,供应(餐饮)等”。如:We must serve the people.“我们必须为人民服务!”In this restaurant  meat is not served.“ 这家餐馆不卖肉食。”serve作不及物动词时意思是“服役。”
例:5.Then pen I ___ I ___ is on my desk, right under my nose.
     (1993年全国高考题)
A. think; lost B. thought; had lost C.think; had lost D.thought; have lost
简析:think用于一般现在时表示一个人现在的想法;用于一般过去时表示过去曾有过的想法,这句话的意思是“我以为已经丢失的那支钢笔在我的课桌上, 正在我的眼皮下。”表示过去是那么认为的,所以要用一般过去时,选项C、D都属时态搭配有错。主句为一般现在时的句子,宾语从句的谓语一般不用过去完成时,主句为一般过去时的句子,宾语从句不用现在完成时,答案为B。
例:6.I don't really work here, I __ until the new secretary arrives.
A.  just help out B. have just helped out
C. am just helping out D.will just help out         (1994年全国高考题)
 简析:因为前提是 I don't really work here.言外之意我在这儿只是暂时帮忙。因为A项是一般现在时,表经常性的动作,不能表达正在帮忙这个动作。而B项中的现在完成时和D中的一般将来时更不能表达暂时帮忙这个意思。这是一个难度相当大的问题。注意到I don't really work here.所提供的情景,就不会只注意到just一词而误用现在完成时了,答案为C。
三、本单元生词详解
1. surround[\~sE5raund\~]v. 围绕,包围
例:Surounded by the police, the kidnappers had no choice but to surrender. 绑架者在警察的包围下别无选择,只有投降。
surround用作及物动词,其过去分词短语用来表示状态或原因,放在句首,这一用法十分普遍。
2. with[\~wiT\~]prep. 和……在一起,用……,由于
例:The poor woman was trembing with terror. 那个可怜的女人怕得发抖。
with表示因为或由于,如:shake with laughter笑得浑身直颤/tremble with fear吓得发抖。
[常用词组]with the window open 开着窗子/with a book in one's hand手里拿着一本书/ with night coming on 夜幕降临
3. through[\~Wru:\~]prep. 穿过,经受,度过
例:Then we started to push our way through crowds of children. 于是我们就开始从一群孩子中挤出去。
through指(空间)通过一物或洞穴的“穿过”“通过”。如:The train has passed through the tunnel. 火车已通过隧道。
[记忆技巧]形近词对比记忆:thorough[\~5WQrE\~]a. 彻底的
[常用词组]get through通过,完成/go through通过,仔细查看
4. amaze[\~E5meiz\~]v. 使惊愕
例:She was amazed to hear that he had died. 听到他的死讯她大吃一惊。
amazing使人惊异的,amazed被……震惊的;amazement惊奇(状态),amaze使……吃惊,此句中运用的是词组be amazed to do sth.。
[记忆技巧]形近词比较记忆:maze[\~meiz\~]n. 迷宫,曲径
[常用词组]be amazed to find(see, hear) sth. 发现(看见,听到)某事物感到惊愕
5. downward[\~5daunwEd\~]ad. 向下
例:She gazed downward. 她向下凝视着。
[记忆技巧]词根分析记忆法:down副词,下,下面;ward形容词或副词后缀,向……,朝……,它们结合在一起的意思是“向下”。
6. curious[\~5kjuEriEs\~]adj. 好奇的,奇特的
例:The new car at the motor-show was of a very curious shape. 汽车展览会上的那辆新汽车式样很新奇。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:inquiring[\~in5kwaiEriN\~]n. 显得好奇的;strange[\~streindV\~]a. 奇怪的;unusual[\~Qn5ju:VuEl\~]a. 不平常的
[常用词组]be curious about sth./to do sth.富于好奇心,想……
四、易混易错词语辨析
1.辨析rock于stone:
这两个单词虽然都表示“石头”之意,但所指对象不同。rock指大石头或高出周围环境的巨大体积的岩石。海中的暗礁亦称为rock。例如:I sat on a large flat rock.我坐在一块巨大平坦的岩石上。/The ship dashed against a rock in the storm and only a few of the passengers were saved.在暴风雨中船触了礁,只有几个乘客得救。stone指石块、石头。普通用词,可指自然形状的石头,也可指经过加工、琢磨过的石头。stone一般较小,简单地说,
rock击碎后就成了许多stone了。例如:Most of the tools used by the primitive
man were made of stones.原始人用的工具大部分是石头做的。/A rollong stone gathers no moss.滚石不生苔。
2.辨析puzzle与confuse:
这一对词均表示“糊涂,迷惑不解”之义。Puzzle多指一个问题或一处情况异常复杂而使人感到迷惑不解。例如:The number case puzzled the police.这起凶杀案使警察迷惑不解。/The little girl's illness puzzled the doctor.这小女孩的病难住了医生。/I am utterly  puzzled what to do with it.我全然不知道该怎么处置它。puzzle的常用短语及固定用法有:puzzle out 加以苦思而找出解答/puzzle over深思/puzzle one's brain仔细考虑confuse表示使混乱,糊涂,不太清楚。指由于某事杂乱难解而使人们思想混乱,有时行动甚至一度失去平衡。例如:I have got confused by my mistake.我被自己的错误搞得稀里糊涂的。/We confused the enemy by turning up and then hiding.我们以时隐时现的方式迷住了敌人。confuse的分词常用来作表语或定语:He looked confused.他看起来被弄糊涂了。 /What he said was rather confusing.他的话令人费解。
3.辨析discover与invent:
discover表示发现了过去未发现的东西,实际上那东西过去就存在。invent的词义是“发明”,指创造了前所未有的事物。例如:I discovered the theory of relativity.爱因斯坦创立了相对论。/It is known to all that Watt invented the steam engine.众所周知,瓦特发明了蒸汽机。/He invented a new method of electricity-saving.他发明了节电的新方法。/Gillbert discovered electricity, but
Edison invented the electric bulb.吉尔伯特发明了电,而电灯是爱迪生发明的。
4. 辨析each与every:
each的意思是每一个,用以指一定数目(两个或两个以上)中每一个具体人或物,着重于个别的含义。例如:Each book on this shelf is worth reading.
这书架上的每一本书都值得一读。/He had words of encouragement for each one of us.他对我们每个人都讲了些鼓励的话。every的意思是每一个,用以指整体(至少三个)中的每一个,不是指每一个具体的人或物,而着重于全体的含义。例如:Every student must study well.每个学生都必须好好学习。(意即所有的 学生都必须好好学习。)/I have read every book on that shelf.我读了那书架上的每一本书。(意即我读了那书架上所有的书。)

Unit  23 The find of the century
一、课文疑难详解
1. Discovery发现
discovery是discover的名词形式,意为“发现,发觉”,如:This is the new discovery in science. 这是科学上的新发现。
2. One moment we were walking along the top of a hill and now we could see no more than about thirty metres ahead of us. 刚才一会儿我们还在山顶上行走,而现在三十公尺以外的地方就看不清了。
注意“one moment...and now...”这一结构,意思是“刚才还……现在却……”。其中,one moment相当于a moment ago的意思。如:
One moment the baby was crying and now it fell asleep. 刚才婴儿还在哭闹,现在却睡着了。
One moment they were making noises and now they just kept silent. 刚才他们还在吵吵嚷嚷,现在都不作声了。
3. We had lost the path and had no hope of finding it again. 我们找不到那条小路,而且也没有希望再找到了。
hope可用不可数名词,其后常跟of引起的介词短语,引导名词或动名词。如:
He gave up all hope of success. 他不再抱成功的希望了。
Is there any hope of their group winning the prize? 他们组获胜有希望吗?
We had no hope of seeing him that day. 那天我们没希望见到他了。
4. I think we should continue walking as long as we can see where we're going. 我想,只要我们能够看到我们要去的地方,我们就应该继续走。
连词词组as long as = so long as,作“只要……就……”解,引导条件状语从句。它跟if状语从句一样,不用将来时态。
As long as you are happy, it doesn't matter what you (will) do. 只要你高兴,你干什么都不要紧。
He'll never forget that so long as he lives. 只要他还活着,他就不会忘记那件事。
5. Then the grass turned to bushes and the hillside became steeper. 接着,野草变成了矮树丛,山坡也变陡了。
句中的turn to作“变成”(become)解,其后跟名词。如:
Ice turns to liquid if we raise the temperature high enough. 如果我们把温度升到足够高的时候,冰就变成液体。
It was getting colder, and the rain turned to snow. 天气越来越冷,下雨变成了落雪。turn to还可以表示“翻到(某页)”“转向”“求助于”解。如:
Turn to page 28, everyone. 大家翻到28页。
The child turned to its mother for comfort. 那孩子向母亲求安慰。
She has nobody to turn to. 她无人可求助。
6. By now we were beginning to get tired and the rain was falling heavily. 这时候,我们开始感到疲乏,雨也下大了。
用于进行时态的动词通常是表示动作的动词,特别是表示持续动作的动词,如work,study等。而有些表示短暂动作的动词,如begin,close,jump等,通常用一般时态表示。如:
Suddenly it began to rain. 突然,天开始下雨了。
但是we were beginning to get tired...用了过去进行时,表示“逐渐”的含义,相当于we were gradually getting tired...的意思。又如:
People are beginning to realize how serious the situation is. 人们正在逐渐意识到形势多么严峻。
一般来说,非延续性动词较少用到进行时,但用作进行时的时候,则表示“逐渐”“重复”“即将”等某一方面的含义。如:
The little girl is jumping up and down. 小女孩在跳上跳下。
Stop arguing. He's beginning to get angry. 别争辨了。他开始发火了。
7. "We can make a fire and warm ourselves."“我们可以生个火来暖暖身子。”
make a fire生火。如:
They collected some firewood and made a fire to keep themselves warm. 他们拾了些柴火,生火来取暖。
另有一些与fire有关的词语:
be on fire着火
The house was on fire. 那房子着火了。
catch fire燃着;着火
Paper catches fire easily. 纸容易起火。
play with fire玩火;自找危险
Whoever plays with fire gets burnt. 玩火者自焚。
Leaving your door unlocked in New York City is playing with fire. 在纽约出去不锁门真是在冒险。
8. Light the fire not so near the entrance that the wind will blow the fire out, and not so far in that the smoke will fill the cave. 点火不要太靠洞口,那样风会把火吹灭的。也不要太靠里边,那样烟会充满岩洞。
1) 这一句式比较复杂。由and引导的两个分句构成了一个并列句,各个分句中都跟有一个由so...that引导的结果状语从句,即that the wind will blow thefire out和that the smoke will fill the cave. 句中的in是副词,表示“在里面,到里面,在家,到家”等意思。如:
In a few moments the captain walked in. 过了一会儿,上尉走了进去。
Jack was expected in at five. 估计杰克5点钟在家。
2) light the fire的light是动词“点燃”(cause to begin burning or give out)的意思。
Every time he tried to light his cigar, the wind would blow the match out. 每当他试图把雪茄点燃的时候,风总是将火柴吹熄。
The old man lit a candle in the cave. 老人在山洞里点燃一支蜡烛。
注意:名词前的定语较常用作lighted,而不用lit。如:a lighted candle点燃的蜡烛。
9. I always carry matches with me at such times and I tore out the pages of the first chapter of the book I was reading to get the fire going. 在这样的时候我总是带着火柴的。我把我正在读的书中第一章的前几页撕下,使火烧旺起来。
1) tear out撕掉,扯下,拔出(= remove sth. by pulling sharply)。如:
tear a page out of a book 撕下一页书
The telephone lines have been torn out, so we can't call the police. 电话线被拔掉了,所以我们不能报警了。
2) get sth. going 使某物开始活跃;使某物开始工作(cause sth. to be active, working , etc. )。如:
Please get the clock going. 请让时钟摆动起来。
In these hard times getting the factory going is quite impossible. 在这个困难时期,要把这家工厂盘活是万万不可能的。
3) I was reading是定语从句,修饰其前的the book。
10. It follows the shage of the rock.(= It has the same shape of the rock.)它是就着岩石的形状而成的。
follow作“遵循”“仿效”“跟随”解(take or accept as a guide, an example, etc.)。如:follow one's advice(听某人的话),follow the fashion(追求时尚,赶时髦),follow this road(沿着这条路走)。
本句中的follow the shage of...是“以……的样子而成形”的意思。
Almost all the balls follow the sahge of a circle. 几乎所有的球体都呈圆形。
11. I think someone has been carving animals. 我看是有人一直在这儿雕刻动物呢。
句中的has been carving是现在完成进行时。
12. I went further back into the cave and stopped still. 我再往山洞里边走去然后站住一动不动。
句中的still是副词,作“安安静静地”“一动不动地”解,用作方式状语,修饰动词stop。有些词典将still的这一用法归纳为形容词,作stank,sit,lie,keep等动词的表语。
这无关紧要,关键是用好就行了。如:
They pushed and pushed, but the tractor stood still. 他们推了又推,但拖拉机一动也不动。
The soldier stood still except that his lips were still moving. 战士一动不动地站着,只是他的嘴唇仍在动着。
The farmer sat quite/very still under the pine tree. 农夫在松树底下一动也不动地坐着。
13. I turned the corner and looked in astonishment. 我转过拐角,惊奇地望着。
in astonishment作“惊奇地”解。修饰动词look。
介词in可以和一些表示情绪的名词连用,构成方式状语,常可译为“……地”。如:
in fear(害怕地),in suprise(惊奇地),in grief(忧郁地),in happiness(愉快地),in sorrow(愁苦地)等。例如:
She shut her eyes in fear. 她害怕地闭上眼睛。
The child looked at me in suprise. 孩子惊讶地望着我。
He spoke to his son in great anger. 他很生气地对儿子讲。
14. Outside the rain had turned into a storm and lightning lashed over the hills. 洞外,小雨已变成了狂风暴雨,山上雷电闪闪。
turn into作“变成”“使……成为”解。例如:
The boy has turned into a fine young man. 这男孩已长成一个很好的小伙子了。
It finally turned into a nice day. 天气终于变好了。
I'm thinking of turning the flower gardon into a vegetable field. 我在考虑把花园变成蔬菜地。
15. We've still got a little food and water and maybe by tomorrow morning the weather will have cleared up. 我们还有一点食物和水。也许明天早晨就会晴了。
1) will have cleared up是将来完成时态,该时态由“will/shall have + p.p.”构成,表示在将来某一时间或某一动作之前已经完成的动作,常同介词by短语(在……之前)连用。例如:
By the end of this year, we will/shall hve finished this book. 截止到今年年底,我们将完成这本书。
By the time you come back, I'll have got everything ready. 在你回来之前,我将准备好所有的事。
2) 短语动词clear up作“(天气)晴朗起来”“开朗起来”。例如:
The weather has cleared up; we can go now. 天气放睛了,我们可以走了。
Her face cleared up as she read the letter. 看了那封信,她的神情开朗起来。
此外,clear up还可作“整理”“收拾”“澄清”“解决”讲。例如:
When you have finished your meal, please clear up the kitchen. 你吃完饭后,请把厨房收拾一下。
The teacher has cleared up the harder parts of the story. 老师讲清了故事中比较难于理解的部分。
16. The smoke from the fire rose and found its way outside and the light danced over the roof of the cave. 缕缕青烟从火中升起,飘出岩洞,火光在洞顶闪动。
find one't way作“到达”解。例如:
Rivers find their way to the sea. 江河流入大海。
They couldn't find their way in.他们进不去。
The statement found its way into print. 讲话(稿)给印出来了。
另有一些与way相关的词语需要重视。如:
ask the way 问路
lead the way 引路,带路
lose one's way 迷路
make one's way 到(某地),向(某地)走去
go a long way 走很远;很有帮助,起很大作用。
17. On one hand, I was anxious to leave. ... on the other hand, I felt sad that I wasn't able to tell my granparents that we were safe. 一方面我急着要离开这儿……另一方面,我很难过,因为我不能告诉祖父母我们在这儿平安无事。
On (the) one hand...On the other (hand)...这一词组表示“一方面……另一方面”的意思,两括号中的词均可省略。如:
On one hand I admie his gifts, but on the other I distrust his judgement. 一方面我羡慕他的天赋,另一方面,我不相信他的判断力。
On one hand the price is high; on the other hand the quality is poor. 一方面价格昂贵,另一方面质量又差。
18. I realized that they would be very worried, but that they would trust our good sense, wherever we were. 我知道他们会担心的,但是我也知道,他们会相信不管在什么地方,我们都能作出明智的判断。
1) 这是一个并列句,由并列连词but引导两个分句。第一分句的主句是“I realized...”,第二个分句省掉了“but (I realized)...”,其后都是由that引导的宾语从句。在第二个宾语从句中还包含一个由wherever引起的表示让步的状语从容不迫句。类似结构如下:
They knew that we needed a computer, but (they also knew) that we had to money to buy one. 他们知道我们需要一台电脑,但他们也知道我们没有钱去买。
2) wherever是从属连词,作“不管在哪儿”“无论在何处”(no matter where)解,引导让步状语从句。如:Wherever he went, he would reveive a warm welcome. 他无论去哪儿,都会受到热烈欢迎。
I will find her wherever she may be. 不管她在什么地方,我都会找到她。
Wherever we travel(l)ed, we found people friendly. 我们无论旅行到哪里,我们都发现人们很友好。
以上各例句中的wherever均可用no matter where来代替。
19. Another part of me wanted this moment to continue forever. 我还有另一个想法,就是希望这个时刻能永远持续下去。
Another part of me wanted...是句很地道的话,可理解成“我的另一部分希望(或想法)……”,换句话说,作者当时有两种想法,一方面是I was anxious to leave,再者是I wanted this moment to go on forever.
20. Neither of us realized that night these carvings and paintings dated back 15,000 years, nor that the headline in the newspaper would be "The find of the century—Children aged 13 and 11 discover cave paintings." 那天晚上,我们谁也没有意识到这些雕刻和绘画已经存在一万五千年了,我们也没有料想到,报纸的标题竟会是“本世纪的重大发现——13岁和11岁的儿童发现了岩洞壁画。”
1) 本句是一个并列句,由并列连词nor引导两个分句。第一分句的主句是“Neither of us realized that...”,其后是由that these carving and paintings dated back 15,000 years所构成的宾语从句;第二个分句省掉了“(did we realize)”,其后是由that the headline in the newspaper would be引导的宾语从句。该结构与注释8相类似。另举例:
Neither of them knew where I would go, nor (did they know) when I would start. 你们谁也不知道我要去哪儿,也不知道我什么时候动身。
2) nor作“也不”“也没有”解,引导分句的时候,要注意用倒装语序。例如:
I don't know, nor do I care. 我不知道,也不在乎。
He has never been to town, nor does he wish to go there. 他从未进过城,也不想去。
3) date back (to)作“可追溯到”“是……时代开始有的”“已存在(好长时间)了”解。例如:
The church dates back to 1173. 那教堂始建于1173年。
This town dates back to Roman times. 这座城从罗马时代就有了。
All that is an old tradition. It dates back several centuries. 所有这一切都是老传统,它已经存在好几个世纪了。
4) “Children aged 13 and 11”中的aged 13 and 11是后置定语,修饰其前的children。
这里aged是形容词,“有……岁”“……年纪的”解,还可表示“上了年纪的”“年老的”等意思。如:
Only the young girls aged 18-20 are fit for the job. 只有18到20岁的女孩才适合做这个工作。
Mr. Wang, aged 50, is an advanced engineer. 王先生有50岁,是一位先进工程师。
5) Children aged 13 and 11 discover cave paintings, 这是报纸上的标题。其中的谓语动词discover是用的一般现在时,而不是一般过去时。这是因为报纸上的标题、图片说明、电影说明、戏剧的舞台说明书中,谓语动词常用一般现在时。
二、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展
例:1.I need more stamp before my collection ___. (1994年全国高考题)
A. has completed B. completes C. has been completed D.is completed
剪析:因为时间状语从句的主语是my collection,所以谓语动词要用被动态。
before引导的时间状语从句谓语动词是一般现在时,还是用现在完成时,服从下列规则:(1)当从句中的将来意义的动作先于主句动词发生时,从句可用现在完成时时态代替一般现在时。如:You cannot watch TV before you have finished your homework.(2)当从句中的将来意义的动作后与主句动词发生时,从句不能用现在完成时。如:You should work hard before you succeed.答案为D。
例:2.__ the sports meet might be put off.(1995年全国高考题)
_ Yes, it all depends on the weather.
A. I've been told B.I've told C. I'm told D. I told
简析:这句话的意思是:“有人告诉我运动会可能延期举行。”‘是的,这全取决与天气。’所以要用被动语态。选项C。I'm told是一般现在时,表示经常发生的事,所以不能作答案。tell后接双宾语。如:I'm told him that I would visit Shanghai some time next week.所以B、D也不能作答案,而应选A,I've been told.
例:3.Shirley __ a book about China last year but I don't know whether she has finished it.(1998年全国高考题)
A. has written B. wrote C. had written D.was writing
简析:时间状语是last year,所以谓语动词时态用一般过去时或过去进行时,再根据I don't know whether she has finished it.所提供的情景,可知当时正在写这本书而没有完成,所以要用过去进行时态,答案为D。
例:4.E-mail, as well as telephones, ___ an important part in daily communication.(1999年上海市高考题)
A. is playing  B.have played C.are playing D. play
简析:这句话的意思是“E-mail和电话正在日常通讯中起着重要作用。”因为表示正在发生的事,所以要用现在进行时,又因为主语是E-mail,所以谓语动词要用单数。as well as前为真正的主语,而其后的词作as well as的宾语,答案为A。
例:5.The number was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back.
A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D.tied(1991年全国高考题)
简析:with后面可接宾语的复合结构(宾语+宾语补足语)。宾语补足语可以是下列词类:形容词:He slept with all the windows open.“他开着窗户睡着了。”
表示状态;现在分词:She stood there with her hand lying on a big stone.
“她站在那儿,一只手放在一块大石头上。”过去分词:The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back.“凶手被带了出来,他的两手被绑在背后。”介词短语:The teacher came into the classroom, with some books in his hand.“老师手里拿着书走进教室。”宾语补足语不能是现在分词的被动式、完成式或动词不定式的被动式,所以答案为D。
例:6.__ a reply, he decided to write again.(1992年全国高考题)
A.Not receiving B.Receiving not C.Not having received D.Having not received.
简析:现在分词的完成式表示动作的先后顺序,没收到信在前,所以要用现在分词的完成式。其否定式是在现在分词的完成式前加not,这句话的意思是:“因为没收到回信,他决定再写一封信。”我们一定要记住:not放在非谓语动词前构成否定式这条规律。答案C。
三、本单元生词详解
1. lose[\~lu:z\~]v. 丢失,失去
例:Because the children keep interrupting her whenever she reads a book, she is always losing her place. 因为无论她在何时看书,孩子们总是打扰她,所以,她老是找不到书看到什么地方了。
lose的意思注意力转到某事上去了,结果对其它(事物)都不能顾及到。本句的意思为由于孩子们的打扰,她的注意力不能集中到看书上了,所以找不到看到什么地方了。
[记忆技巧]形近词对照记忆:loose[\~lu:s\~]a. 松的;loss[\~lCs\~]n. 损失
[常用词组]lose one's way迷路
2. path[\~pB:W\~]n. 小路,道路,途径
例:He is paving the garden path with flat stones of various shapes. 他正在用各种形状的扁平石子铺筑花园小径。
path的意思是小路,小径,常常指只供人们步行的小路,花园小径应该用path。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:way[\~wei\~]n. 路;road[\~rEud\~]n. 道路;avenue[\~5Avinju:\~]n. 林荫道;course[\~kC:s\~]n. 过程,道路
[常用词组]path to sth.
3. extraordinary[\~ iks5trC:dinEri\~]a. 非常的,离奇的,使人惊奇的
例:What an extraordinary thing he had done! 他做了一件多么离奇的事情啊!
[记忆技巧]词根分析记忆:extra-以外,超过;ordinary普通的,寻常的,超出寻常即非常的。
4. pause[\~pC:z\~]v. 暂停,停顿,中止
例:He paused in the doorway in order to light his cigarette. 为了点燃香烟,他在门口停了一会儿。
pause是不及物动词,后面不能接宾语。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:hesitate[\~5heziteit\~]v. 犹豫;wait[\~weit\~]v. 等待;rest[\~rest\~]v. 休息;interrupt[\~7intE5rQpt\~]v. 打断
[常用词组]pause (for sth.)停顿,中止
5. earth[\~\~]n. 地球,地面
例:You won't find a greater variety of flowers anywhere else on earth. 只有在这里你才能找到这么多不同品种的花。
on earth用在疑问句或否定句中,表示强调。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:globe[\~^lEub\~]n. 球;world[\~wE:ld\~]n. 世界;ground[\~^raJnd\~]地面;soil[\~sCil\~]n. 土
[常用词组]on the earth在地球上,在地面上/on earth到底,究竟
6. sense[\~sens\~]n. 意义,感觉
例:I have such a bad cold that I have lost all sense of smell. 我感冒很严重以致失去嗅觉了。
sense“感觉”,sense of smell意为嗅觉,一个人患了重感冒后会失去嗅觉的,这符合医学道理。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:feeling[\~5fi:liN\~]n. 感觉;awareness[\~E5wZEnis\~]n. 意识;consciousness[\~5kCnFEsnis\~]n. 知觉
[常用词组]the sense of touch(hearing, sight)触(听、视)觉
四、易混易错词语辨析
1.辨析answer与辨析
answer和reply都可用作名词和动词。它们用作动词时的区别可简述如下:answer的意思是回答、答复,是最普通的用词,包括口头、书面或行动回答。它可以用作及物动词或不及物动词。例如:He answered my question.他回答了我的问题。/It is a difficult question to answer.这是一个难以回答的问题。/They left a boy to answer the bell.他们只留下一个孩子应门。reply的意思也是回答、答复,但比answer正式些。它指用口头或书面回答。严格地讲,是指有针对性地详细回答。它也指用行动回答。reply常用作不及物动词,回答某人或某事,后面要接to,当它与直接引语或从句连用时,才用作及物动词。例如:I have not yet replied to his letter.我还没有回他的信。/For a moment he did not know how to reply.他一时不知道如何作答。/He replied that he might go.他回答说他可能去。
2.辨析ought与should:
ought的意思是应该、应当。通常表示有责任或义务,有时还表示有需要的意思。例如:You ought to go there.你应该到那儿。/You ought to eat more.你应当多吃一点。/You ought to have told me that yesterday.你昨天就应该把那件事情告诉我 。should也有应该、应当的意思,也表示有责任或义务,但与ought相比,其意味较弱,它有时还表示有必要。例如:You should be more careful.你应该细心一些。/He should have told me the news yesterday.他昨天就应该把这消息告诉我。/It is neccessary that we should go there at once.我们必须立即去那儿。
3.辨析tired与exhausted:
tired的意思是疲倦、疲乏、累。它是普通用语,大量用于日常生活中,意味较弱,通常指费力过度或而感到疲劳。它还可表示感到厌倦、厌烦的意思。例如:Are you tired?你累了吗?/My eyes were tired from reading in a poor light.因在不良光线下阅读、我的眼睛很疲劳。/We are tired of hearing the old story.这老话我们听厌了。exhausted的意思是疲惫、劳累,意味较强,指由于长时间费力过度,以致精力耗尽。例如:Tom was too exhausted to eat his dinner.汤姆已经精疲力竭,不想吃饭了。/The enemy troops were exhausted and demoralized.
敌军疲惫不堪,士气低落。/I was too exhausted to take easily when once asleep.我太累了,只要倒头一睡就很难醒过来了。
4.辨析animal与beast:
animal的意思是动物,是相对于植物而言,是动物的总称,通常指兽、鸟、虫、鱼等。例如:It is an animal of monkey kind.这是一种属于猴类的动物。/The animal is hungry.这个动物饿了。beast的意思是四足动物,兽,通常指不包括爬行动物的较大的四足动物。例如:The camel is the beast of burden.骆驼是负重的动物。/The tiger is a beast of prey.老虎是猛兽(食肉兽)。

Unit 24 Finding a job
一、课文疑难详解
1. Many young people end up in a job to which they are not suited. 许多年轻人最后还是干了一件不适合他们的工作。
1) end up最后(做某种结局),终于(成为……)。该短语通常含有“最终不好”的意思(reach an unfavourable end)。例如:
If you drive your car like that, you'll end up in hospital. 如果你像那样开车,你最终会住进医院的。
Stop spending so fst, or you'll end up as a beggar. 不要挥金如土,否则你最终会成为乞丐的。
How does the story end up?故事的结局怎样?
2) be suited to/for适合,适于。可视为由suit sth. to sb./sth. 的被动形式演变而成的一系表结构。
Is western democracy sutied to/for the nations of Asia and Africa? 西方民主适合亚洲与非洲国家吗?
The actors are suited to their parts. 这些演员都适合他们扮演的角色。
Do you think he is suited to teaching? 你认为他适合教书吗?
They are suited to each other. 他们彼此合得来。
2. First, it is important to recognize what kind of person you are and which special qualities make you different from everyone else. 首先,重要的是你得认识自己是什么样的人,有哪些特殊的品质使你不同于其他人。
句中的it是形式主语,真正的主语是其后的不定式短语“to recognize...”再往后出现的是两个宾语从句,一个是“what kind of person you are”,另一个是“which special qualities make you different from everyone else”。(第95课中I think it is important to follow...的it结构分析与以上相类似。)
be different from作“与……不同”解。如:
This dictionary is different from that one. 这本词典与那本词典不同。
Is our country different from theirs? 我们的国家与他们的国家不同吗?
make sb./sth. different from使某人/某物不同于……。如:
The high quality of our products made them different from those made by their factories. 我们的产品质量高,这使它不同于其它厂家生产的产品。
3. The best job is one which uses your skill in doing something together with your interest in the subject. 最好的职业,是既能用的上你会做某事的技能,而又是你所感兴趣的事。
one作“某类的人或物”解,相当于a person或a thing,代指前面的单数名词,以避免重复。句中的one = a job。
The officer is one(= a person) who gives orders. 军官就是下命令的人。
The best food is one(= a food/a kind of food) which helps to make one(= a person) healthy. 最好的食物是有益于健康的食物。
4. For example, you might be good at persuading, directing, interviewing, listening, teaching or informing. 比方说,你也许善于劝说、指导、采访、聆听、教导或传递信息。
此句中的might表示推测,可用may代替。
5. ... and it sounds as though you have plenty of both of these already. ……看来你似乎这两方面都已俱备了。
“it sounds as though...”作“听起来似乎……”解。as though = as if,所引导的从句可以作状语、表语等;从句中的主语与主句的主语一致,从句的谓语又含有be动词的时候,相关重复结构还可以省略。
It looks/appears as if it is going to rain. 看来似乎要下雨了。
It sounds as if he knew nothing about the accident. 听起来他对那场事故就像一无所知青样的。
I remember the whole thing as if it happened yesterday. 整个事情我都记得,就像是发生在昨天一样。
From time to time he turned round as if (he was) searching for someone. 他不时地转身,好像在找人一样。
He paused, as if to let them pay attention. 他停了下来,好像想让他们注意。
6. Speak to your father and tell him that you are already doing well in the subject of your choice. (= Speak to your father and tell him that you are successful in the subject that you've been chosen.)同你父亲谈一谈,告诉他,你对于你所选择的学科已经干得不错了。
do well作“做得对”“干得好”解(be successful/act in a right way)。例如:
You did well to take the doctor's advice. 你接受了医生的劝告,你做得对。
He does well in English, but he isn't good at maths. 他英语学得好,但数学没学好。
7. If you like, remind him that many women have shosen to work in fields that were not used to accepting women. 如果你愿意,你还可以提醒他,许多女子已经选择了过去不接受妇女的部门去工作了。
“that were not used to accepting women”是定语从句,修饰先行词fields。从句中的谓语动词是be used to短语构成,作“习惯于”解,其中的to是介词,后面跟名词、代词或V.-ing形式,构成be used to sth./doing sth.结构。注意used to和be used to的区别:
used to是情态动词,它表示后跟的动词的动作是“过去经常”发生的,并且该动作现在不是这样了。例如:
She used not be so forgetful. 她原来不是这样健忘的。
They used to come on foot, but they come by bus now. 他们过去经常步行来,但现在常常乘公共汽车来。
He used to fail in the exam. 他过去经常考试不及格。
used to的否定式和疑问式各有两种:
He usedn't to come. = He didn't use to come. 他过去不常来。
Used to he come? = Did he use to come? 他过去常来吗?
be used to作“习惯于”解,其中的to是介词,后面跟名词、代词或V-ing形式,构成be used to sth./doing sth.结构。例如:
They are used to hard work/life.他们习惯于艰苦的工作/生活。
He is used to getting up early. 他习惯于早起。
You will be used to working in the countryside. 你将习惯于在农村工作。
“Are you used to the cold weather here?”“No, I'm not (used to it).”“你习惯于这里的冷天气了吗?”“不习惯。”
从以上的比较中可以看出,used to和be used to的根本区别在于:used to后跟的是动词原形,该动作只能是“过去经常”发生的;而be used to中的to是介词,后跟名词、代词或V.-ing形式(偶尔接动词原形的有关内容初学者不必掌握)。
8. You can point out that Florence Nightingale opened up nursing and that Madame Curie opened up sciences to women. 你可以指出,弗洛伦斯.南丁格尔开创了护理工作,居里夫人为妇女学理科开辟了道路。
1) Florence Nightingale弗洛伦斯.南丁格尔,(1820-1910),英国女护士,欧美近代护理学和护士教育的创始人之一,护理界的优秀楷模和典范。Madame Curie居里夫人,著名科学家,镭元素的发现者。
2) open up作“开辟”“开创”“开拓”解(to begin to exist and grow或to make possible the development of)。例如:
In this new way they opened up a favourable new situation. 用这种新的方法他们就这样开创了有利的新局面。
More wasteland will be opened up in the near future. 在不久的未来有更多的荒地要开垦。
9. Congratulations on your good news! 对你的好消息,我表示祝贺。
就某方面祝贺,需要用介词on。如:
Please accept my congratulations on your good news! 请接受我对你的好消息的祝贺!
Congratulations on your success! 你成功了,恭喜恭喜!
He said congratulations to me on my graduation from middle school! 我中学毕业了,他向我表示了祝贺。
10. Then, as with young birds, the time comes for the young to leave. 然后,正像小鸟儿常有的情况那样,年轻人出走的时候到来了。
as with young birds是非限制性定语从句as is often the case with young birds的省略,句中的as是关系代词,代表后面的整个句子(the time comes for the young to leave)(例句参见注释7)。as is often the case with是“那对于……是常有的事”的意思,可作为一个意义结构作为了解即可。
11. As we say, the day must come when the young are grown and flown. 正如我们所说,年轻人“长大飞走”的一天必然会到来的。
1) as引导有些非限制性的定语从句。as代表后面的整个句子的意思。例如:
As we know, he is a famous artist. 正如我们所知,他是一位著名的艺术家。
As is judged/expected, our team won. 正如所判断/期待的,我们队赢了。
2) when引导的是分隔定语从句,修饰前面的day,以避免句子结构的头重脚轻。
The days when we used "foreign oil" are gone. = The days are gone when we used "foreign oil". = Gone are the days when we used "foreign oil". 我们使用“洋油”的日子一去不复返了。
12. So celebrate your success, and invite your parents to celebrate with you, however hard it may be for them. 因此,你得庆贺你的成功,并且邀请你的父母跟你一道庆贺,不管这样做对他们来说是怎样难。
however hard it may be for them是让步状语从句。however是连词,作“不管如何”、“无论多么”解,等于no matter how。其句式结构是:
“However + 副词/形容词 + 主语 + 谓语 + 主句”
However hard he tries, he won't manage it. 不管他怎么努力,都不会做成。
However loudly you shout, you won't be heard. 无论你怎么喊都不会让人听见。
However cold it is, he always goes swimming. 不管天气多冷,他都去游泳。
二、本单元高考热点归纳与拓展
例:1.The computer centre, _ last year,is very popular among the students in this school.(1993年全国高考题)
A.open B.opening C.having opened D.opened
简析:open可作形容词,意为“开着的”,表状态。如:He went out of the house with the windows open.“他开着窗户就出去了。”
open也可作不及物动词。如:The door opened and in came the teacher.
“门开了老师走了进来。”open还可作及物动词,意义为“打开,开放”,如:
He opened the door and came in the room.“他打开门走进了房间。”
在这个句子中open是及物动词,意为“开(业);开张”,所以要用过去分词,答案为D。
例:2.Charles Babbage is generally considered_ the first computer.
A.to visit B.inventing C.to have invented D.having invented
简析:consider后接动名词作宾语,意为“考虑”,如:We considered visiting the old scientist the next Sunday.“我们考虑下星期天访问那个老科学家”,后接带to的不定式作宾补或主补,意为“认为”,分别构成consider sb.to do sth.和 be consider to do sth.句型,如果表示过去发生的事,动词不定式要用完成式,因为计算机是过去发明的,所以填C,to have invented.
例:3.The missing boys were last seen _ near the river.
A.playing B.to be playing C.play D.to play
简析:此题考查谓语动词与感官动词的搭配,所谓感官动词是hear,listen to, see, watch, notice, feel等及物动词,其后的宾补既可是现在分词,表示当时正发生的动作;又可是动词原形,变成被动语态时,原来的 动词原形要加to,表示习惯经常性或已经完成了的动作。这句话的意思是“有人曾看见丢失的孩子在河边玩”,显然是当时正在发生的动作,所以要用现在分词。答案为A。
例:4.The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him__.
A.not to B.not to do C.not to it D.do not do
简析:let sb to do sth.意为“让某人做某事”。在英语中,为避免重复,常用省略形式,如:“Would you like to visit the factory?”"Yes, I'd like to."“你愿意参观这个工厂吗?”“是的,我愿意去。”这个句中省略了do it.答案A。
例:5.He spent me an E-mail,__ to get further information.
A.hoped B.hoping C.to hope D. hope(2000年上海市高考题)
简析:从句中前后的 逻辑分析着,“He spent me an E-mail”的原因是“他希望得到更多的信息,”动词hope与“他具有主动含义;标点逗号提示前后两句既不是并列也不是目的。 答案B。
例:6.When a pencil is partly in a glass of water,it looks as if it _.
A.breaks B.has broken C.were broken D.had been broken.
(1998年全国高考题)
简析:as if引导的从句要用虚拟语气,表示现在用一般现在时,如果是动词be,无论主语是单数还是复数一律用were,表过去用过去完成时,这句意思是“当把一支铅笔的一部分放在一杯水中时,它看上去象断了一样”,答案C。
三、本单元生词详解
1. choose[\~tFu:z\~]v. 选择,挑选,选择如何做某事
例:Her husband felt it would be silly to choose the colour of the curtains before they had painted the room. 她的丈夫认为在油漆房间之前选择颜色是愚蠢的。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:select[\~si5lekt\~]v. 选择;pick[\~pik\~]v. 挑选;prefer[\~pri5fE:\~]v. 更喜欢
[常用词组]choose how to do sth. 选择如何去做……/choose sb. as (for)...选某人作……/pick and choose 挑挑拣拣
2. suit[\~sju:t\~]v. 适合,相称
例:Call for me at any time that suits you.合适的时候请来叫我一声。
suit指适合某种特定的场合、目标、地位、情况或形势。time“时间”,这属于“情况”的范畴。
[记忆技巧]同根形容词联合记忆:suitable[\~5sju:tEbl\~]a. 合适的
[常用词组]suit to do (for doing, for)sth.适于(做)某事/follow suit跟着做,照着做/a man's (woman's) suit 一套男子(妇女)衣服
3. chance[\~tFB:ns\~]n. 机会,希望,可能性
例:If you ever have the chance to go abroad to work, you should take it. 如果你有机会出国工作,你就应该去试试。
chance“机会”,后面可跟动词不定式,此外,句末的it即是chance,take和chance搭配意思是“碰机会”。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:fate[\~feit\~]n. 命运;luck[\~lQk\~]n. 运气;accident[\~5AksidEnt\~]n. 事故;opportunity[\~7CpE5tju:niti\~]n. 机会
[常用词组]a chance to do sth.一个做某事的机会/by chance偶然
4. step[\~step\~]n. 脚步声,台阶,梯形,阶段,措施
例:When the soldiers were on the march, there was one man who was always our of step with the rest. 行军中,有个士兵总是与其他人的步伐不合拍。
out of与step连用,意为“不合步伐”。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:pace[\~peis\~]n. 脚步;stair[\~stZE\~]n. 阶梯;stage[\~steidV\~]n. 阶段;measure[\~5meVE\~]n. 措施
[常用词组]step by step逐步地,逐渐地/in(out of) step步调一致(不一致)
5. remember[\~ri5membE\~]v. 记住,铭记
例:He won't remember to buy some bread unless I tell him again. 我得再关照他一声,要不然他不会记得去买面包的。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:recall[\~ri5kC:l\~]v. 回忆;memorize[\~5memEraIz\~]v. 记住;keep in mind记住
[常用词组]remember doing sth. 记得曾做过某事/remember to do sth. 记住要去做某事/remember...as...把……作为……来铭记
6. advantage[\~Ed5vB:ntidV\~]n. 优点,优势,利益
例:He was a much older tennis player but he had the great advantage of experience. 他是一个年纪很大、经验丰富的网球选手。
advantage指与他人比较而言所占的优势,经常与of连用。
[记忆技巧]同义词比较记忆:superiority[\~sju(:)piEri5Criti\~]n. 优势;benefit[\~5benifit\~]n. 利益
[常用词组]take advantage of sb. 欺骗(或捉弄)某人/to sb's advantage对某人有利
四、易混易错词语辨析
1.辨析subject与topic:
subject题目,主题,问题。概念十分广泛,常可与topic交换使用。指演讲、讲话、书籍,文章里的中心或主要问题,范围相当广泛,若干topic可以组成一个较全面的subject.如:Don't change the subject;answer the question.不要扯到别的事情上,回答这个问题。/He wrote to me on the subject of changing his job.他给我写信,主要谈他调换工作的问题。/The subject of the painting is the Battle of Waterloo.这幅画的主题是滑铁卢大战。topic题目。普通用语,概念极为广泛,既可指文章,讲话的目的,讲话的内容,也可指提纲中的标题甚至段落及句子的中心思想。总的来说,topic起着提纲挈领的作用,内容是大家所关心的,范围又是限定的。如:The topic of paragraph is carefully introduced irr its first sentence.每段的中心思想都巧妙地安排在第一句话里。/That is not a fit topic for dinner- table conversation.那可不是宴会桌上的恰当主题。
/The students were asked to write an essay on one of the assigned topics.要求学生们在所布置的题目中选择一个,写篇文章。
2.辨析difference与distinction:
difference差异,差别。普通用语,可指事物本质上的差异或数量上的 差别,也指事物某一方面的差异,有时又指人与人之间的不同意见与不和。总之,这是一个大量出现在各种文体中的普通词汇。如:a difference in age年龄上的差异/the difference in temperature温差/The difference between 10 and 8 is 2.十与八之间相差二。/It doesn't make such difference to me what you think and say.你怎么想,怎么说,我都无所谓。/We have our little difference but we are good friends.我们之间有着小小的争论,但我们仍是好朋友。distinction区别,界限。正式用语,指事物差异之间的界限,也指事物在本质上的区分,但也指在某一方面、某一细节上的区分,要经过认真研究,观察后才易发觉。如:the distinction of the rich and the poor贫富之差/a distinction between right and wrong是非界限/Being colourblind, he can't make a distinction
between red and green.由于色盲,他无法区分红与绿。/A distinction should be made between the primary and secondary tasks.应该分清主要任务与次要任务。
3.辨析accept与receive:
accept的意思是接受,它所表示的这种行为是由主观意愿决定的,即主观上愿意接受。例如:I accepted it without question.我毫无疑问地接受了它。/We have accepted his proposal.我们已经接受了他的建议。/I accepted the invitation.我接受了邀请。recieve的意思是收到、接到、受到,它所表示的这种行为与主观意愿没有什么关系。例如:I receive a letter from him.我接到他的来信。/He received a good education.他受过良好的教育。/I received an invitation.我收到一封请贴。(去不去还不一定)/He received the gift, but he didn't accept it.他收到了礼物,但他没有收纳。在表示接待,接见时,通常用receive,而不用accept.如:We often receive foreign guests.我们经常接待外宾。
4.辨析ability与capacity:
ability能力,才能。可用复数abilities,可以指做某事的能力,这种能力是可以通过学习或锻炼而获得或提高,也可以指聪明、才智。如:the ability to work工作能力/At an early age he showed much ability for mathematics.他年轻的时候就表现出数学很有才能。/She is a person of great ability.她能力过人。
capacity能力,接受能力,智能。用于事物时指容纳接受的能力,如容量、容积、生产能力等。用于人时,ability指已表现出来的实际能力,而capacity则是指潜在的能力,一般不指体力,而多用于才智、道德等方面,尤指接受能力、颖悟性、敏感性等。例如:a child's capacity for learning孩子的接受能力/the capacity for work工作潜力/She has a capacity for learning languages.她有学习语言的能力。/The hall has a seating capacity of 1500persons.大厅可容纳1500人。/This book is beyond my son's capacity at the moment.这本书已超过了 我儿子现阶段的接受能力。

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