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高二必修5 Unit 4 Making the news重点词汇详解
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2008-10-6 | 字体: |

新课标  人教版  高二第五模块第四单元单词解读
(Making the News)

1.eager(keen, anxious)   adj. 热切的;渴望的(after, about, for)
The boy was eager for success. 男孩子急于获得成功。
He is eager for his parents to meet his girlfriends. 他盼望他的父母去见他的女朋友。
The saleswoman in the shop is always eager to please everybody.
"商店里的那个女售货员总是十分殷勤,希望使人人满意。"
【习惯用语】
be eager for 渴望, 渴求, 争取   
be eager about 渴望, 渴求, 争取  
be eager after 渴望, 渴求, 争取
be eager to do 急欲, 渴望做
【参考词汇】
eager /keen /anxious 意思都含“渴望的”。
eager指“以巨大的热情渴望实现愿望或达到目的的”, 有时也指“由于其他感情影响而表现急不可耐的”, 如:
He was eager to see her. 他渴望见到她。
keen 指“对某人、某物怀有极大兴趣或热情的”, 如: They were keen to win. 他们急于取胜。
anxious 指“热切地希望实现愿望,并因顾虑愿望落空而心情不安,感到焦虑的”, 如: l'm anxious to know the final result. 我急于想知道最后的结果。
eagerly  adv.   eagerness  n.

2.work/task/ duty/job/responsibility
【参考词汇】
work 常指正式职业和职位的经常性、一般性工作,不含有“艰巨”、“沉重”等意思。是不可数名词。at work在工作
work hard at努力工作(或学习);out of work失业。My work is as a doctor.我当医生(职业)。
task 一般指必须完成的“任务”, 是可数名词。如: Mother set me the task of sweeping the floor.母亲把扫地的任务 交给了我。task 往往含有“艰巨”、“沉重”等意思。而work 除另有修饰语外不含此种意思。
duty指“道义上的责任”, 较强调“自觉性”, 如: Every citizen has the duty to construct his country. 每个公民都有建设祖国的责任。
job指“活、事、一份工作”时是可数名词,多指为换取报酬而进行的日常活动,尤指作为某人的手艺、行业或职业的工作。可数。Washing the windows is not my job. 洗窗子不是我的事儿(任务)。习惯表达:  a good job一件好事lose one's job失业be out of a job失业   do a good job干的不错
     It was his job to repair bicycles and at that time he used to work fourteen hours aday.修理自行车就是他的话,而且常常是一天要干14个小时。
responsibility 指“由于法律、职业或道德等的要求而应尽的责任”, 含有“法津上对后果负责任”的意味, 如:
The resposibility rests on us. 这由我们负责。Do not forget your duty to your parents. 不要忘记对父母应尽的责任。

3.course  n. 过程;经过;进程
in the course of discussion 在讨论期间
道路;路线;方向 The ship was blown off course. 那船被吹离航线。
【习惯用语】
in course of  在...的过程中    
in due course 在适当的时候;不久以后  
in the courts of在...期间   
during the course of 在...期间

4.meanwhile  adv. 此时  同时
They'll be here soon. Meanwhile we'll have some coffee. 他们即刻就到,我们现在先喝点咖啡。
Meanwhile, my tongue was busy searching out the hole where the tooth had been.
与此同时,我的舌头忙于寻找被拔牙齿的伤口。
Meanwhile, two other actors had carried two large food baskets to a shady spot under some trees.
与此同时,另外两位演员把两个盛着食物的大篮子拿到树下荫凉的地方。
Jane was writing a letter and meanwhile Pat was watching T.V.. 简在写信,而在此同时帕特在看电视。

5.case  n.事;事例
This is a case of stupidity, not dishonesty. 这只是个愚蠢的例子,并非不诚实。
情形;场合;状况 'Well, in that case, I would prefer to stay on the bus,' I answered. `唉,那样的话,我宁愿留在车上啦,'我回答说。
a case of poverty 穷苦的情形
病症;病例 This is a case of fever. 这是一发烧的病例。
案件;诉讼 a difficult case to prove 一个很难办的案子
In this case I'm acting for my friend Mr Smith. 我在这次诉讼中代表我的朋友史密斯的利益。
The case against Mr. White is said to be heard tomorrow. 据说怀特先生被起诉一案定于明天开庭。
The case was settled out of court. 这案件在庭外解决。
事实;实情 The police have a clear case against the prisoner. 警察有充足的事实对付那个囚犯。
Is that the case? No, that's not the case. 事实是那样吗?不,事实并非如此。
【习惯用语】
in case假使,以防(引导虚拟语气)
Take a hat with you in case the sun is very hot. 倘若太阳很利害,你就把帽子戴上。
in case of假如;如果;万一 In case of rain they can't go. 万一下雨,他们就不能去了。
in any case无论如何,不管怎样   
in no case 决不;无论如何不   
in that case  如果是那样的话
in this case 假如这样的话   
in the case of 就...来说, 关于

6.accuse  vt. accused, accusing 控告;指控
The police accused him of murder. 警方指控他谋杀。    The police accused him of stealing. 警方控告他犯有盗窃罪。
Mary was accused as an accomplice. 玛丽被指控为同谋犯。
■accuse/charge
两个动词都有“控诉,指控”之意,但它们后面所搭配的介词不同。
accuse v.指控,控诉,与介词of连用。The police accused him of theft.警察指控他犯有盗窃罪。
charge v.可以指因为小错而受的责备,也指因违法而受到控告,与介词with连用。
The police charged him with murder.警察指控他犯了谋杀罪。
【常用搭配】in charge of 主管,看管   in(under)the charge of 在……的掌管下
charge sb.with 指控某人………
charge(sb.)…(money)for sth. 要价,要(某人)付….(钱)买某物
take charge 开始管理,接管

7.deny  vt.  denied, denying  否认;否定;拒绝相信
He said that I had stolen his bicycle, but I denied it. 他说我偷了他的自行车,可是我否认了。
背弃;摒弃    He denied his country. 他背弃了自己的国家。
拒绝;不给;不予;不允许   He denies his wife nothing. 他对他的妻子有求必应。
【习惯用语】
deny oneself 自制;克己;舍弃
●deny /decline /refuse /reject 都含“拒绝”的意思。
▲deny指“坚定地否认某事为真实的”,如: He denied the charge. 他否认了控告。
deny doing(否认做过某事);deny sb. sth(拒绝给某人某物)。Deny+that从句
▲decline 指“较正式地、有礼貌地谢绝”,如: He declined our invitation to dinner.他婉拒了我们请他吃饭的邀请。主要用于拒绝有关社交活动的邀请或要求帮助的请求,后接名词或动词不定式,主语只能是人。I invited her to join us, but she declined.我邀请她和我们在一起,可是她婉言谢绝了。
▲refuse 系普通用语,指“坚决、果断或坦率地(不友善地)拒绝”, 如: He refused to take the money. 他拒绝接受此款。
▲reject指“以否定、敌对的态度而当面拒绝”(指通过抛弃或送走、专横地拒绝), 主语可以是人或物,后接名词,不能接动词不定式。如: They rejected damaged goods. 他们拒收损坏的货物。He asked her to go to the movies three times, and each time she rejected him.他三次约她去看电影,但每一次都被拒绝。

8.defend  vt. 保卫;防护;防守
She had to defend herself against the guard dog. 她不得不防备看门狗咬她。
辩护;辩解 ;守卫;防御
He's better at defending than attacking. 他的防守优于进攻。 The accused man had a lawyer to defend him. 被告有一律师为他辩护。
【习惯用语】 defend against 保卫; 抵抗      defend from 保护, 保卫(使不受伤害)
【参考词汇】 defend /guard /protect /preserve 都含“保护”、“使安全”的意思。
defend指“保卫”、“防御”, 应用范围很广, 对象可以是具体的, 也可以是抽象的, 用于defend sb. against / from harm结构。如: defend oneself against enemy 防御敌人。
guard 指“注意观察、戒备, 以免受可能的攻击或伤害”, 如: guard a coastline 守卫海岸线。
protect 指“保护...以免遭受危险或伤害等”, 常用protect sb. from sth./against sth.的结构。如: protect the children from harm 保护儿童免受伤害。 
preserve 指“防护、保存...免被分解或腐烂”, 如: Salt preserves food from decay. 盐能防止食物腐烂。
secure指确保不会发生意外等如secure oneself against/from danger使自己免于危险。
By strengthening the river banks, the city secured itself against flood. 由于加强了河堤, 该城可确保免受水灾。

9.normal adj. 正常的;常态的;一般的                 
The normal price of a ticket if $230! 一张票的正常价格是230英镑。  
above [below] normal 标准以上[下]   return to normal 恢复正常
The rain raised the river two meters above normal. 雨水使得这条河水位超出标准两米。
智力正常的;身心健全的 a normal child
【参考词汇】
■normal /ordinary /regular 都含“正常的”、“正规的” 、“普通的”的意思。
normal指“正常的”、“正规的”、“常态的”, 如: the normal temperature of the human body 人的正常体温。
ordinary强调“平常的”、“平淡无奇的”, 常指人或事物不特殊。 如:His ordinary supper consists of only bread and milk. 他通常的晚餐不过是面包和牛奶。an ordinary day's work 日常工作。
regular 指“有规律的”、“正规的”、“定期的”, 如: He kept regular hours. 他过着有规律的生活。
common强调“常见的”、“ 不足为奇的”, 如:Colds are common in winter.感冒在冬天很常见。common knowledge/sense 常识
general意为“普遍的”、“一般的”, 如:This book is intended for the general reader, not for the specialist. 这本书是为一般读者写的, 不是为专家写的。

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