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高二选修6 Unit 1 Art 语法讲练-虚拟语气
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2008-11-18 | 字体: |

虚拟语气(一)

[语法导读]
 虚拟语气表示说话者的愿望、假设、怀疑或推测,所说的话或与现在事实相反,或与过去事实相反,或与将来事实相反,它通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。我们现在就以下面这两个句子为例来迈入虚拟语气的大门。
1. He is busy now. If he were free, he would go with you.
2. I wish I could go to the movie with you tonight, but I have to finish my homework then.
 第1个句子中的“忙碌”是现在的事实,这样后面句子中的“空闲”则是与现在事实相反的假设,所以“和你一起去”也与现在事实相反。因此,if从句的谓语用一般过去式were(be动词的过去式一般用were),而主句的谓语用“would +动词原形”。
 第2个句子中的主句的谓语是wish,从后面but表示的转折的意义看,“今晚我去看电影”是不现实的,所以从句的谓语用“could +动词原形”。

[寻规找矩]
 请观察下列几组句子,特别要注意其中谓语动词的不同形式。
1. a. If I were you, I would accept the invitation and attend the meeting.
b. If he studied harder, he would pass all the examinations.
2. a. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year round.
b. Peter wishes that he had studied law instead of literature when he was in college.
c. I wish it would stop raining soon so that we could go hiking as planned.

[功能小结]
 通过观察分析以上几组例句,我们可以发现与之相对应的虚拟语气的用法:
 一、虚拟语气用在条件句中
 与现在事实相反:从句的谓语用一般过去式(be动词的过去式通常用were),主句的谓语用“would / should / could / might + 动词原形”。
 二、虚拟语气用在wish引导的宾语从句中
   在wish 后接的宾语从句中,谓语要用过去的某种时态表示虚拟语气。
 1. 表示现在不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语用一般过去式;
 2. 表示过去不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语用“had +过去分词”或“could / would + have + 过去分词”;
 3. 表示将来不能实现的愿望,从句的谓语用“would / could + 动词原形”。

[即学即练]
I. 用括号内所给动词的适当形式完成下列句子。
1. I failed the exam. How I wish I ______ (remember) all those English words before the test!
2. If I ______ (be) ten years younger, I would accept the offer and do the job.
3. We wish we ______ (live) on the moon in the future.
4. I don’t know the word. If I ______ (know) the meaning of it, I wouldn’t have to look it up.
II. 从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。
1. — Have you ever been to Beijing?
— No, but I wish I ______.
A. have      B. will C. do        D. had
2. If there were no water in the world, everything ______.
A. will die        B. would die 
C. would have died D. have died 
3. I wish that I ______ with you last night.
A. could have gone B. could go   
C. have gone     D. went 
4. If I ______ you, I ______ more attention to English idioms and phrases.
A. was; shall pay   B. am; will pay 
C. would be; would pay   
D. were; would pay 
5. I wish that you ______ such a bad headache because I’m sure that you would have enjoyed the concert.
A. wouldn’t have   B. didn’t have
C. hadn’t had     D. haven’t had 

Key: I. 1. had remembered 2. were
     3. could live    4. knew
 II. 1-5 DBADC


虚拟语气专练
1.——Did you submit(递交)your application for a Master’s degree(硕士学位)?
——Not yet. If I_____ to see my father, I would have.”
A. didn’t go    B. haven’t gone    C. wouldn’t have gone     D. hadn’t gone
2.——Why didn’t Tom give you one of his paintings?
——I didn’t want one, but he would have given me one if I ____.
A. Do      B. would            C. will               D. had
3.——Do you think the thief entered through the garage door?
——No, if he had, I don’t believe _____broken the living room window.
A. would he have      B. he had    C. he would have     D. he has
4._______I’d have told you.
A.  If I would have known it         B.  If I had have known it
C.  Had I know it                  D.  Should I know it
5. I ____come yesterday, but I couldn’t.
A. was to have       B. must         C. ought        D. have to
6.——It is raining, and I have no umbrella.
——Here’s mine, and I insist ____it.
A. you to take    B. that you take    C. that you taking   D. you taking
7. The professor gave orders that the test ____before 5:30.
A. be finished     B. will finish   C .will be finished    D. shall finish
8. I must go there earlier. John has suggested that I _____an hour before the discussion begins.
A. go      B. shall go       C. will go        D. would go
9. I didn’t go to the party, but I do wish I ____there.
A. was      B. were           C. had been       D. went
10. She speaks as if she ____on the spot.
A. was        B. were         C. had been         D. is
11. If I ______ten years younger, I _____ very happy.
A. were, would be    B. am, shall be   C. were, shall be   D. am, would be
12.—— You can ask your brother for help.
—— He is not at home. If he ____, I _____.
A. is, would      B. were, would       C. is, will        D. were, will
13. If you ____the doctors advice, you would have already recovered.
A. follow      B. followed    C. would follow   D. had followed
14. If he had not missed the train, he _____by then.
A. might get    B. might have got    C. got   D. had got
15. What would you have done last night, if you _____to write your homework.
A. hadn’t    B. haven’t had   C. didn’t have     D. hadn’t had
16. —— Did you catch the plane?
——No. if I had hurried, I ______.
A. would       B. would have        C. could        D. did
17. Why didn’t you tell him the truth?  If I _____you, I would have.
A. were     B. had been       C. am      D. would be
18.——How do you like the party?
——Wonderful. If you had come with us,  you ____a good time.
A. had      B. had had       C. would have     D. would have had
19. If I _____out of my ink, I would have finished writing the paper.
A. didn’t run     B. shouldn’t run    C. haven’t run     D. hadn’t run
20. If you _____early tomorrow morning, you would be there by noon.
A. have started    B. were started   C. were to start     D. had started
21.——Did you hand in your application for a league member?
——Not yet. If I _____to see my father, I would have.
A. didn’t go   B. haven’t gone   C. wouldn’t have gone    D. hadn’t gone
22.——Why didn’t Tom give you one of his paintings?
——I didn’t want one, but he would have given me one if I _____.
A. do    B. would   C. will    D. had
23.——Do you think the thief entered through the garage door?
——No, if he had, I don’t believe ____broken the living room window.
A. would he have    B. he had   C. he would have       D. he has
24.______I’d have told you.
A. If I would have known it         B. If I had have known it
C. Had I known it                 D. should I know it
25. I ____come yesterday, but I couldn’t.
A. was to have     B. must      C. ought      D. have to

Keys: 1-5  DDCCA          6-10  BAACB          11-15  ABDBD 
16-20  BBDDC        21-25  DDCCA

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