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高二选修6 Unit 2 Poems语法之虚拟语气讲解
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2008-11-20 | 字体: |

虚拟语气(二)

[语法导读]
 在上期我们已经给同学们介绍了if条件句中与现在事实相反的虚拟语气的用法,这期我们将继续学习if条件句中与过去、将来事实相反的虚拟语气以及其他虚拟语气的用法。请注意观察并分析下列句子。
 1. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she had come, I would have met her.
 2. If he were to come tomorrow, things would be easier.
 第1个句子中的“没看见”是过去的事实,这样if条件句中的“来”就与过去事实相反,“我看到她”也与过去事实相反。因此,从句的谓语用“had +过去分词”,主句的谓语用“would + have +过去分词”。
 第2个句子中从句表达的“来”和主句表达的“是”都与将来事实相反,因此,从句的谓语用“were to +动词原形”,主句的谓语用“would +动词原形”。

[寻规找矩]
    请观察下列几组句子,特别要注意其中谓语动词的不同形式。
1. a. If he had studied harder, he would have passed the 2007 NMET.
b. Had the weather been good, the children could have gone out for a walk.
2. a. If I were to win the first prize in the contest, I would treat you to dinner at KFC.
b. If I should be free tomorrow, I would come to see you.
3. a. If he had received six more votes, he would be our monitor now.
b. If it hadn’t been for the doctors’ care, I wouldn’t be speaking to you now.
4. a. Without your help (=If we had not had your help), we could not have succeeded.
b. He was having a meeting; otherwise he would have come over to help us.
c. Under better conditions, the trees could have grown taller and thicker.
d. But for the English test, I would have gone home this week.

[功能小结]
 通过观察分析以上几组例句,我们可以发现与之相对应的虚拟语气的用法:
 1. 与过去事实相反:从句的谓语用“had + 过去分词”,主句的谓语用“would / should / could / might + have +过去分词”。当从句的谓语中有should, were, had时,可将if省略,而将should, were, had提前,构成倒装语序。
 2. 与将来事实相反:从句的谓语可以用一般过去式,也可用“were to / should + 动词原形”,主句的谓语用“would / should / could / might + 动词原形”。
 3. 错综时间条件句:主句的谓语和从句的谓语表示的动作在时间上并不一致,对于这类虚拟条件句一定要注意主、从句各表示的时间,从而判断其谓语用什么形式。
 4. 有些句子虽不含条件从句,但意思和条件句差不多,它们通过某些介词短语、副词来表达,如:without, otherwise, under ... conditions, but for等。

[即学即练]
I. 用括号内所给动词的适当形式完成下列句子。
1. If I had studied hard, I ______ (win) the scholarship now.
2. The Scottish speaks Chinese so well as if he ______ (be) to China before.
3. You ______ (not make) such a serious mistake if you had followed my advice.
4. If I ______ (know) that you were coming, I would have met you at the airport.
5. If I ______ (do) the job, I would do it in a different way.
II. 从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项。
1. If it ______ another ten minutes, the game would have been called off.
A. had rained      B. would have rained
C. have rained      D. rained   
2. ______ for your help, we’d never have been able to get out of trouble.
A. Had it not been B. If it was not
C. If we had not been
D. If there had not been  
3. You didn’t let me drive. If we ______ in turn, you ______ so tired.
A. drove; didn’t get 
B. drove; wouldn’t get
C. were driving; wouldn’t get 
D. had driven; wouldn’t have got 
4. If he ______ me tomorrow, I would let him know.
A. should call B. should have called
C. were able to call   
D. are able to call
5. ______ to give up, he would take my place.
A. If were I   B. I were
C. Were I   D. Was I


Key:
I. 1. would / could win      2. had been
   3. would not have made  4. had known
   5. should / were to do
II. 1-5 AADAC

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