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[高考前18天] 高考英语知识点综合训练[4]
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-5-5 | 字体: |

7.die out :
*(of families, species, etc.)no longer have any members left alive (指家族、物种等)死光,灭绝;
eg.
⑴The habitat of the species is being destroyed and has nearly died out.
这一物种因栖息地遭到破坏,几乎灭绝了。
⑵Dinosaurs died out.恐龙灭绝了。
⑶Elephants would die out soon if men were allowed to shoot as many as they wish.
如果允许人们随心所欲地射杀大象,那么它们不久就会灭绝。

*(of a custom, practice, ideas, etc.)no longer be common(指习俗、做法、观念等)消失,过时;
eg.
⑴The old traditions are dying out. 旧传统正在消失。
⑵The practice of children working in factories has nearly died out.
工厂中使用童工的做法已几乎绝迹。

*(of a fire) to lose force or power(指火)熄灭。其后不接宾语
eg.
⑴It took a long time before the big fire died out . 过了很长一段时间那场大火才渐渐熄灭。
⑵The fire died out in the end.火终于熄灭了。

其他常见的die 短语:
*die from :常用于由于外部创伤或间接的原因致死
eg.
He died from an accident /a wound/ overwork /polluted air /carelessness.
他死于事故 /受伤/过度劳累 / 污染的空气 / 粗心。

*die of:一般用于害病,疲劳,寒冷,饥渴,年老,失望,悲伤等感情原因造成死亡
eg.
He died of joy/ fear /disappointment / grief /old age /hunger /cold.
他死于高兴 / 恐惧 / 失望 / 悲伤 /年老 /饥饿 /寒冷。
当表示因病而死时,用die of 或die from均可,如:die of/ from illness(因病而死),die of/from heart disease/cancer (死于心脏病/癌症)。

*die for “为…而死,为…献身”,表示因为事业或目的而死
eg.
⑴The soldiers died for his country / the revolutionary cause / the people / liberty / the national dignity.战士为国家/ 革命事业/ 人民/ 自由/ 国家的尊严而献身。
⑵To die for the people is an honour, not a misfortune.为人民而死是荣誉,不是不幸。

*die off 表示相继死去,直到绝种的意思,其后不能接宾语
eg.
⑴The members of the family had all died off.这家人一个个都死了。
⑵The poor children died off because of lack of food.由于缺乏食品孩子们一个个死去。

*dying for sth./to do sth. 渴望…
eg.
⑴I’m dying for something to eat.我极想吃点东西。
⑵He is dying to know where you’ve been.他极想知道你去哪里了。

*其他情况:
⑴Xiang Lin-sao died poor. 祥林嫂在穷困中死去。
⑵He died a millionaire.他死时是个百万富翁。

8.插入语
一般是对一句话作一些附加的解释。如果去掉插入语,对句子结构并无影响。插入语可用于陈述句, 或疑问句(要用陈述语气,且疑问词应放在插入语的前面),其位置可在句中或句末。常见的插入语有:I hope, I think, I wonder, do you believe, I guess, I suppose, you see, don’t you think, don’t you know, I tell you, what’s more等。

eg.
⑴How much money did he say he spent in traveling abroad?他说他在国外旅行花了多少钱?
⑵Which food do you think is healthy and which is unhealthy?
你认为哪种食物是有益于健康,哪种无益于健康?
⑶Where did she suggest we should shopping?她建议我们去哪儿购物?

⑷That will be a good beginning, I hope.希望这是一个良好的开端。
⑸The report, I think, was both interesting and instructive.
我觉得这个报告既有意思又有教育意义。
⑹When do you suppose they’ll be back?你认为他们会在什么时候回来?

高考题链接:
①He made another wonderful discovery , _______ of great importance to science.(1998上海高考)
A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think which is

分析:本题考查定语从句中插入语的用法,因为插入语必须位于引导词之后,所以D项不对。因为做定语从句的主语,所以不能再用it,B、C明显不对。
答案:A

②Maggie has been fortunate to find a job she loves and, _______ , she gets well paid for it.(2005浙江高考)
A. sooner or later B. what’s more C. as a result D. more or less

分析:“sooner or later”意为“迟早”,“as a result”意为“结果”,“more or less”意为“或多或少”。根据题意: “Maggie很幸运找到了她喜欢的工作,而且报酬也不错”,此处应选“what’s more”(而且),做插入语。
答案:B

③Mum is coming. What present ______ for your birthday? (2005福建高考)
A. you expect she has got
B. you expect has she got
C. do you expect she has got
D. do you expect has she got

分析:本题选项中的do you expect为插入语,用来征求对方的意见或征询对方的看法,这种特殊疑问句的主谓语应使用陈述句语序。
答案:C

9.adapt:
*适应(新环境),常用于:adapt to sth..
adapt oneself to sth.
eg.
⑴Generally speaking, the species that are able to adapt to the change of the environment will survive, while the others will die out.
一般来说,能够适应环境变化的物种会继续生存下去,而那些适应性差的物种就灭绝。
⑵When you are abroad, you must find ways to adapt yourself to the culture and custom there.你到国外后,要设法使自己适应那里的文化和风俗习惯。
⑶Our eyes slowly adapted to the dark.我们的眼睛慢慢地适应了黑暗的环境。

*改编,改写,修改某事物
eg.
⑴The film Farewell My Concubine was adapted from the novel of the same title by Hong Kong novelist Li Bihua.电影《霸王别姬》是根据香港作家李碧华的同名长篇小说改编的。
⑵This novel has been adapted for radio from the Russian original.
那部小说已由俄文原著改编成无线电广播节目。
⑶This machine has been specially adapted for use underwater.
这机器是为水下使用而特别改装的。

*adaptable adj. 能适应的,可改编的
adaptation  n. 适应,改编本
adaptability n. 适应性
adaptor n. 适配器,转接器

10.at present 目前,现在
eg.
⑴She is busy at present and can’t speak to you now.她现在忙,不能和你说话。
⑵We don’t need any help at present.我们现在不需要帮助。

*for the present 目前,暂时
eg.
⑴I’ve got enough money for the present.我的钱暂时够用。
⑵I can’t remember his name for the present.我一时记不起他的名字了。

*presently adv. “马上,立刻”, 在美国英语中也可表示“现在”的意思
eg.
⑴I’ll be with you presently.我不久就可以陪你。
⑵The Secretary of state is presently considering the proposal.国务卿现在正在考虑该项建议。
⑶The manager will be here presently.经理马上就来。

11.common adj.共同的,共用的,普通的,常见的
常用短语:
in common  共同,共用
in common with…  和…一样
out of the common  不平常的
have something / a lot/much in common with sb./sth. 和…有些(许多)共同之处
have nothing /a little/little in common with 和…没有(有一点,几乎没有)共同之处

eg.
⑴They are sisters, but they have nothing in common.他们虽是姐妹,但毫无共同之处。
⑵In common with many young people, he likes pop music.和许多年轻人一样,他喜欢流行音乐。
⑶Real friends should have everything in common.真正的朋友应该不分彼此。

⑷In common with most educated people he prefers classical music to jazz.
如同大多数受过教育的人,他也喜欢古典音乐而不喜欢爵士乐。
⑸The two brothers have little in common in their manners.这兄弟俩的举止极少有相似之处。
⑹He noticed nothing out of the common.他没发现异乎寻常的事。

考题链接:
They have a lot ______ and become good friends.
A. in case B. in common C. in surprise D. in peace

分析:根据句意:他们有许多共同之处,成了好朋友。应搭配成have a lot in common。
答案:B

12.set free 释放,…自由
⑴The PLA men broke into the prison and set all the revolutionaries free.
解放军打进监狱,把革命者全部释放。
⑵Great power is set free when water is boiled.水煮沸时会释放出巨大的能量。
⑶I opened the cage door and set the bird free.我打开鸟笼把鸟儿放了。

*free adj. 自由的,无拘无束的;免费的;空闲的
短语:be free to do sth.   自由自在,不受拘束地做某事
be free from/of…  不受…影响的
free and easy  不拘束的,轻松的
free of charge  免费
for free   免费

eg.
⑴Everyone is free to express himself.每个人都可以畅所欲言。
⑵Anyone who buys this breakfast food gets a free gift of a small plastic toy.
购买这份早餐食物的人都可得到一件免费的塑料玩具。
⑶The atmosphere in the office is quite free and easy.办公室的气氛很轻松。
⑷The doctor will be free in ten minutes. Can you wait that long?
医生十分钟后有空,你能等一下吗?

⑸She was free from all blame for the accident.那次事故完全不能怪她。
⑹The old lady is never free from/of pain.那位老太太从未摆脱过病痛。
⑺Delivery is free of charge if goods are paid for in advance.如欲付货款就可免费送货。
⑻I got this ticket for free from somebody who didn’t want it.我这张票没花钱,是别人不要的。

*free v. 使自由,免除,解放,使松动
⑴The little boy freed the bird from its cage.那小男孩把笼里的鸟儿放了。
⑵I need to go out. Can you free me for an hour?我需要出去一下,你能让我离开一小时吗?
⑶At last he freed himself from debt.他终于还清了债务。

13. as a result 结果是
as a result of… …的结果
eg.
⑴It rained heavily. As a result, we had to stay at home.雨下得大,结果,我们都得呆在家里。
=We had to stay at home as a result of the heavy rain.
⑵As a result of the pilot’s strike, all flights have had to be cancelled.
由于飞行员罢工,所有的航班被迫取消。

*result in … “引起,导致”,表示结果
result from…“作为…的结果”,表示原因
eg.
⑴The trial resulted in his being sentenced to two years’imprisonment.
审判结果是他被判刑两年.。
⑵Hard work results in success.努力工作就能成功。
⑶The election resulted in a great victory for their party.选举结果,他们的党取得巨大胜利。
⑷Her injury resulted from a fall.她因摔倒而受伤。
⑸The accident resulted from carelessness.事故是因粗心而引起的。

高考题链接:
My friend Martin was very sick with a strange fever; _____, he could neither eat nor sleep.(2005江西高考)
A. as a result B. after all C. any way D. otherwise

分析:本题考查句意及词组辨析能力,“after all”意为“毕竟”,“any way” 意为“无论如何”,“otherwise ”意为“否则的话”。题干前后为因果关系,因此选用as a result。
答案:A

14.reduce
*vt. “减少,缩减,降低”,与to连用时表示“减少到,减低到”,与by连用时表示“减少了,减低了”
eg.
⑴This shirt was greatly reduced in the sale.这种衬衣在大减价时降价很多。
⑵The driver reduced the speed when the car was passing through a town.
当汽车穿过城镇时,驾驶员减慢速度。
⑶Some fat people try to reduce their weight.一些肥胖的人设法减肥。
⑷He won’t reduce the rent of our house.他不肯减收我们的房租。
⑸Her weight has been reduced by 6 kilos.她的体重已减少了六公斤。

*vt. reduce sb./sth. to…使某人/某事物陷入某种(通常指更坏的)状态或状况中
eg.
⑴The fire reduced the house to ashes.这场火灾把那所房子化为灰烬。
⑵Overwork has reduced him to a physical wreck.他过度劳累而损害了健康 。
 
相似用法:increase by…增加/长了…
increase to…增加/长到…
eg.
⑴The population has increased to 1.9 million now.人口现在已增加到190万。
⑵The rate of inflation has increased by 2﹪.通货膨胀率已增长了2﹪。

高考题链接:
----The cars give off a great deal of waste gas into streets.
----Yes. But I’m sure something will be done to______ air pollution.(1996 上海高考)
A. reduce B. remove C. collect D. warn

分析:根据题意“汽车向街道排放出大量的废气。是的,但我确信将采取某些措施来减少空气污染”,以及四个选项的词义,此处应选A.
答案:A

15.spread v. 传播,蔓延;铺开,摊开;伸展,扩展
eg.
⑴He spread the news around the town.他在镇上到处传播这一消息。
⑵The bird spread (out)its wings.那只鸟张开了翅膀。
⑶The strike has already spread to other factories.罢工已在其他工厂产生连锁反应。
⑷Fear spread quickly through the village.全村不多久就人心惶惶了。
⑸Flies spread disease.苍蝇传播疾病。
⑹He spread the map out on the floor.他把地图铺在地板上。
⑺Have you seen a desert spreading for hundreds of miles?你见过绵延上百英里的沙漠吗?

短语:spread like wildfire (尤指谣言、传闻、疾病)飞速地传开
spread (sb./oneself ) out 使某人/自己离开其他人或散开
eg.
⑴The news spread like wildfire.消息不胫而走。
⑵The search party spread out over the moor.搜索队在荒草地分散行动。
⑶Don’t all sit together, spread yourselves out.别都挤在一块,分开坐吧。

高考链接:
Papermaking began in China and from here it _______ to North Africa and Europe.(2002上海春季高考)
A. spread B. grew C. carried D. developed

分析:根据句意“造纸术起源于中国,从这里传播到北非和欧洲”,应选spread
答案:A

16. match
(1) vt. (在品质、颜色、设计等方面与---)相等,相当,相配
The tie matches your suit. 这领带与你的西装相配。
The color of the shirt does not match that of the coat.
衬衫的颜色与上衣不搭配。
The curtain matches the wall very well. 窗帘与墙壁十分搭配。

(2) vi. 相配,相当
These gloves do not match. 这两只手套不配对。
The curtains and carpets match well. 地毯与窗帘很相配。
These shoes do not match, one is large and the other is small.
这双鞋不相配,一只大一只小。

(3) vt. 与---比赛,匹敌
I can match Jack at this game. 我可与杰克在此项目上匹敌。
I often match my strength with my brother’s. 我常和我哥哥较力气。

(4) n. 火柴,比赛
He struck a match to light the room. 他划了根火柴来照亮房间。
There will be a football match between Class 1 and Class 2 this Saturday.
本周六一班与二班之间有场足球赛。

(5) n. 对手
You are no match for me in tennis. 打网球你不是我的对手。
He is more than a match for me. 他是比我高明的对手。
He never met his match in playing computer games. 打电脑游戏,他从未遇到过对手。
Have you found your match? 你遇上对手了吗?

17.a series of 一系列,许多,一套,一组
a series of good harvests 连年的丰收
a series of questions 一系列问题
a series of Long March memorial stamps 一套长征纪念邮票
a series of pictures 连环画
Our army has won a series of victories. 我们军队连战皆捷。
She bought a series of stamps. 她买了一套邮票。

serial  adj. 连续的,一系列的,一串的
 n. 连续剧,连载小说等
the serial number of a check 一张支票的序号
An exciting new serial story will begin in our next week’s issue.
一个刺激而新颖的连载故事将于下周开始在本刊登出。
I prefer Korean TV serials. 我爱看韩剧。

18. in trouble 处于不幸或困境中
We should help those who are in trouble. 我们应该帮助那些处境困难的人。
Hi! You are in trouble, aren’t you? 你又遇到麻烦了,是不是?
When in trouble, you should turn to your friends for help.
你遇到困难时,应该向朋友求助。

相关链接:
(1) ask/look for trouble 自找麻烦,自讨苦吃
You are asking for trouble yourself! 你真是自讨苦吃!
Forget me, please. Why do you ask for trouble?忘掉我吧,为什么你要自寻烦恼呢?
Don’t ask for trouble by worrying about exams. 别为考试担心而自寻烦恼了。

(2) have trouble in doing/with sth. 做事费劲
I have some trouble in doing my homework. 我做作业有些困难。
Do you have any trouble with grammar? 对付语法你有什么难处吗?

(3) get into/out of trouble 陷入困境,惹麻烦/摆脱困难
Little John was always getting into trouble. 小约翰总是惹麻烦。
He wanted to change for my money but he got into trouble.
他想给我找零钱,但陷入了困难。
If we work hard, we can get out of trouble. 如果我们努力工作,我们可以摆脱困境。

(4) go to the trouble of doing 不辞辛劳地做某事
She went to the trouble of explaining the sentence again.
她特意又解释了一遍那个句子。
She goes to the trouble of trying to advise him to give up smoking.
她不辞辛苦地劝他戒烟。
John went to the trouble of drawing pictures for children.
约翰不辞辛苦地为孩子们作画。

(5) make trouble 闹事,惹麻烦
Don’t make trouble in your classroom. 别在你们教室里捣乱。
My little brother often makes trouble in my study. 我的小弟第常在我的书房捣乱。

(6) be a trouble to do sth. 做某事是件麻烦事
Preparing this dish is a trouble. 准备这道菜是件麻烦事。
She doesn’t want to be a trouble of me. 她不想成为我的麻烦。

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