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英语100篇精读荟萃 [中级篇]
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2007-4-1 | 字体: |

Passage Six (Equality of opportunity in the twentieth Century Has Not Destroyed the Class System)
 These days we hear a lot of nonsense about the ‘great classless society’. The idea that the twentieth century is the age of the common man has become one of the great clichés of our time. The same old arguments are put forward in evidence. Here are some of them: monarchy as a system of government has been completely discredited. The monarchies that survive have been deprived of all political power. Inherited wealth has been savagely reduced by taxation and, in time, the great fortunes will disappear altogether. In a number of countries the victory has been complete. The people rule; the great millennium has become a political reality. But has it? Close examination doesn’t bear out the claim.
 It is a fallacy to suppose that all men are equal and that society will be leveled out if you provide everybody with the same educational opportunities. (It is debatable whether you can ever provide everyone with the same educational opportunities, but that is another question.) The fact is that nature dispenses brains and ability with a total disregard for the principle of equality. The old rules of the jungle, ‘survival of the fittest’, and ‘might is right’ are still with us. The spread of education has destroyed the old class system and created a new one. Rewards are based on merit. For ‘aristocracy’ read ‘meritocracy’; in other respects, society remains unaltered: the class system is rigidly maintained.
 Genuine ability, animal cunning, skill, the knack of seizing opportunities, all bring material rewards. And what is the first thing people do when they become rich? They use their wealth to secure the best possible opportunities for their children, to give them ‘a good start in life’. For all the lip service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world. Private schools which offer unfair advantages over state schools are not banned because one of the principles in a democracy is that people should be free to choose how they will educate their children. In this way, the new meritocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent: an able child from a wealthy home can succeed far more rapidly than his poorer counterpart. Wealth is also used indiscriminately to further political ends. It would be almost impossible to become the leader of a democracy without massive financial backing. Money is as powerful a weapon as ever it was.
 In societies wholly dedicated to the principle of social equality, privileged private education is forbidden. But even here people are rewarded according to their abilities. In fact, so great is the need for skilled workers that the least able may be neglected. Bright children are carefully and expensively trained to become future rulers. In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated peasant.

1. What is the main idea of this passage?
[A] Equality of opportunity in the twentieth century has not destroyed the class system.
[B] Equality means money.
[C] There is no such society as classless society.
[D] Nature can’t give you a classless society.
2. According to the author, the same educational opportunities can’t get rid of inequality because
[A] the principle ‘survival of the fittest’ exists.
[B] Nature ignores equality in dispensing brains and ability.
[C] Material rewards are for genuine ability.
[D] People have the freedom how to educate their children.
3. Who can obtain more rapid success
[A] those with wealth.
[B] Those with the best brains.
[C] Those with the best opportunities.
[D] Those who have the ability to catch at opportunities.
4. Why does the author say the new meritocracy can perpetuate itself to a certain extent? Because
[A] money decides everything.
[B] Private schools offer advantages over state schools.
[C] People are free to choose the way of educating their children.
[D] Wealth is used for political ends.
5. According to the author, ‘class divisions’ refers to
[A] the rich and the poor.
[B] Different opportunities for people.
[C] Oppressor and the oppressed.
[D] Genius and stupidity.

Vocabulary
1. discredit   损害,破坏,败坏(某人的名声),不可信
2. monarch   国王,女皇,君主政体
3. millennium  千年
  the millennium  千僖年
4. bear out   证实
5. level out   (升跌之后)呈平稳状态
6. meritocracy  英才管理,英才教育,能人统治
7. knack   技巧,诀窍
8. perpetuate   使永久,永存或持续
9. indiscriminate  不加鉴别的,不加分析的,任意的
10. boil down   归结为……

难句译注
1. Close examination doesn’t bear out the claim.
【参考译文】深入探索证实此断言不确。(也就是说太平盛世并没有成为政治现实)。
2. might is right
谚语:强权即公理。
3. For all the lip service we pay to the idea of equality, we do not consider this wrong in the western world.
【结构简析】lip-service口惠而实不至。EX: He pays lip-service to feminism but his wife still does all the housework.他口口声声说支持女权主义,但全部家务仍是他妻子的事。
【参考译文】我们口口声声赞扬平等思想,我们在西方世界中并不认为这一思想事错误的。
4. In the end, all political ideologies boil down to the same thing: class divisions persist whether you are ruled by a feudal king or an educated person.
【参考译文】最终,一切政治意识,都归结为一件事:不论你是由封建国王统治还是英才统治,阶级区分依然存在。

写作方法与文章大意
 这是一篇对“无阶级社会和人人平等”论点的驳斥文章。作者从四个方面进行论述。1、天赋的才能和智慧与平等原则无关。2、“适者生存,强权即公理”依然存在。3、人获得的报酬是取决于人的才能而不是平等。4、金钱的作用,它不仅可以培育有能力的人,还是政治的后盾。只有金钱加能力是成功的关键。所以所谓平等不存在,更没有无阶级的社会。


答案详解
1. A 二十世纪平等的机遇并没有摧毁阶级。文章一开始就对无阶级社会的论点进行了反驳:有人认为君主整体已完全摧毁,幸存下来的王公贵族已经被剥夺了一切政治权力,继承的财产为税收大幅度的削减,到时候,巨大的财富将消失殆尽,在许多国家中,已全面胜利,人民进行统治,伟大的太平盛世已成为政治显示。作者认为:深入检查证实这一断言不实。第二段提出了即使人人都获同样的受教育的机会,可人的天然智慧和能力与平等原则无关,适者生存,强权即公理依然存在。教育的普及摧毁了老的阶级体制,却创造新的,报酬是机遇才干成就。贵族统治就是英才统治,可在其他方面,社会依然,阶级确实存在。后面两段集中论述了金钱的作用。
B.金钱意味着平等是错误的。C.不存在无阶级社会。内容是对的,但不是本文的主题思想。D.自然界不会赋予你一个无阶级社会。
2. B 自然界在分赋人智慧和能力是不会顾及平等。
A.适者生存的原则存在。根据这一原则无智慧和能力者难以生存于社会。C.物质报偿是根据人的真正能力。D.人们有自由选择如何教育自己的孩子。这三项都基于一点――人的智慧和能力。有智慧能力才能生存,才能获报偿,这已经是不平等,即使获同样的受教育的机会,也不可能铲除不平等。
3. A 有钱的人。第三段一开始就点明:真正的能力、动物般机敏狡猾、技能、善抓机会的诀窍,这一切都带来物质报偿。有了钱的人首要作的事情就是给孩子最佳教育机会,而私人学校教育优于公立学校,人们又有自由选择如何教育自己的孩子。在这个意义上,英才教育在某种程度上是永存的。一个来自富有家庭的有能力的孩子要比其对立面获得成功要快得多得多。
B.具有很高智慧的人,若没有钱是难以成功的。第三段的最后一句话也点明这一点,金钱同从前一样是强有力的武器。文章最后一段即使在完全遵循社会平等原则的社会里,禁止特权的私人教育,人们也是按能力获报酬。小心翼翼而又耗费巨大地把聪明的孩子培养成未来的统治者。C.具有最佳机遇的人。D.是B和C的结合。
4. A金钱决定一切。新的英才教育在一定程度上永存。没有钱,上不起私立学校,谈不上机会,更不用说英才教育。有了钱才能为孩子创造机会。
B.私立学校提供的优越性高于公立学校。C.人们有自由选择教育孩子的方式方法。D.财富用于政治目的。第三段最后三句话:“财富也可以不加区别地用于更远的政治目的。没有强大的财政作后盾,成为民主国家的元首几乎是不可能。金钱和过去一样是强有力的武器,这也说明了金钱的力量,决定一切。”
5. A 富人和穷人。纵然作者提及,同样的教育机会也不可能铲除不平等,因为上天赋予人之智慧是不可能考虑平等原则,可是作者也提到适者生存、强权即公理。贵族政治可读成英才教育。这已说明英才指的是贵族的英才。第四段进一步指出有钱的人首先要做的就是给子女一个良好的教育机会。而私立学校的教育质量优于公立学校。有钱人家的有能力的孩子成功机遇就高。财产还可用于政治目的,要成为民主国家的领袖就得有雄厚的财力支持。钱财和过去一样强有力。即使在以社会平等为原则的社会中,私立学校被禁,酬劳还是以人的能力为准,大量需要有技能的工作人员,而差劲的人没有人关注。天才的孩子予以仔细而又及其昂贵的培养以成为未来的统治者。
总之,政治意识归结为同一个东西――阶级划分存在,不论你是为封建帝王统治,还是为受过教育的农民统治,从这里看,作者的class division指的是A项。
B.人们不同的机遇。C.压迫者和被压迫者。D.天才和笨蛋。

Passage Seven (The Most Important of All Human Qualities is a Sense of Humor)
Biologically, there is only one quality which distinguishes us from animals: the ability to laugh. In a universe which appears to be utterly devoid of humor, we enjoy this supreme luxury. And it is a luxury, for unlike any other bodily process, laughter does not seem to serve a biologically useful purpose. In a divide world, laughter is a unifying force. Human beings oppose each other on a great many issues. Nations may disagree about systems of government and human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps, but we all share the ability to laugh. And laughter, in turn, depends on that most complex and subtle of all human qualities: a sense of humor Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal. This can best be seen from the world-wide popularity of Charlie Chaplin’s early films. The little man at odds with society never fails to amuse no matter which country we come from. As that great commentator on human affairs, Dr. Samuel Johnson, once remarked, ‘Men have been wise in very different modes; but they have always laughed in the same way.’
 A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from a refined tingle to an earth quaking roar, but the effect is always the same. Humor helps us to maintain a correct sense of values. It is the one quality which political fanatics appear to lack. If we can see the funny side, we never make the mistake of taking ourselves too seriously. We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy, so we never get a lop sided view of things.
 This is one of the chief functions of satire and irony. Human pain and suffering are so grim; we hover so often on the brink of war; political realities are usually enough to plunge us into total despair. In such circumstances, cartoons and satirical accounts of somber political events redress the balance. They take the wind out of pompous and arrogant politicians who have lost their sense of proportion. They enable us to see that many of our most profound actions are merely comic or absurd. We laugh when a great satirist like Swift writes about war in Gulliver’s Travels.  The Lilliputians and their neighbors attack each other because they can’t agree which end to break an egg. We laugh because we meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too. It is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish.
 The sense of humor must be singled out as man’s most important quality because it is associated with laughter. And laughter, in turn, is associated with happiness. Courage, determination, initiative – these are qualities we share with other forms of life. But the sense of humor is uniquely human. If happiness is one of the great goals of life, then it is the sense of humor that provides the key.

1. The most important of all human qualities is
[A] a sense of humor.
[B] A sense of satire.
[C] A sense of laughter.
[D] A sense of history.
2. The author mentions about Charlie Chaplin’s early films because
[A] they can amuse people.
[B] Human beings are different from animals.
[C] They show that certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal.
[D] They show that people have the same ability to laugh.
3. One of the chief functions of irony and satire is
[A] to show absurdity of actions.
[B] to redress balance.
[C] to take the wind out of politicians.
[D] to show too much grimness in the world.
4. What do we learn from the sentence ‘it is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish in totalitarian regimes?’
[A] It can reveal the truth of political events with satire.
[B] It can arouse people to riot.
[C] It shows tragedy and comedy are related.
[D] It can make people laugh.
5.  Who is Swift?
[A] A novelist.
[B] A poet.
[C] A dramatist.
[D] A essayist.

Vocabulary
1. devoid   没有,缺乏
2. plague   n.瘟疫,惹人烦恼的人和事v.给……造成麻烦,痛苦,困难
3. faction   派别
4. comic stereotype 可笑/滑稽的模式
5. commentator  (集注)作者,评论员,解说员
6. tinkle    n.一连串的丁零声,电话声,v.使发出丁零声
7. fanatic   狂热者(尤指宗教、政治的狂热)
8. lop-sided   不均匀的
9. hover    翱翔,盘旋;彷徨
10. somber   低沉的,暗淡的,严峻的
11. redress   纠正,补偿
12. pompous   自大的,浮夸的
13. arrogant   傲慢的
14. proportion   均衡,匀称,平衡,比例
15. Lilliputian   微型的,极小的,源自《格列佛游记》中的小人国里的人
16. totalitarian  极权主义的
17. regime   政体,政权,统治方式或制度

难句译注
1. In a divided world, laughter is a unifying force.
【参考译文】在分裂的世界中,笑是一种促成一致(团结)的力量。
2. Human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps,
【参考译文】人际关系可能因思想意识派别和政治阵营的不同而受侵扰。
3. Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal.
【参考译文】某些滑稽的模式具有全球性的效果。
4. Charlie Chaplin查理•卓别林1889-1977,英国讽刺滑稽剧及电影演员,导演及制片人。
5. At odds with society和社会格格不入。
6. Dr. Samuel Johnson撒缪尔•约翰生,1709-1784,英国辞典编撰者及作家。
7. A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from a refined tinkle to an earth quaking roar.
【参考译文】幽默感表现的方式多种多样,笑也许是银铃般优雅轻笑,也许是震耳欲聋的放声大笑。
8. If we can see the funny side, we never make the mistake of taking ourselves too seriously.
【参考译文】如果我们能见到可笑的一面,我们就不会犯这种错误:对自己看得过重(自以为了不起)。
9. We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy, so we never get a lop-sided view of things.
【参考译文】我们会经常提醒自己祸兮福所伏(悲剧离喜剧实际并不遥远),那我们决不会偏执一词地看事物。
10. Take the wind out of sb’s sails使某人气馁或泄气。
11. Swift Jonathan swift乔纳森•思维福特1667-1745,英国作家,生于都柏林,曾获牛津大学硕士,三一学院神学博士学位,1688年到英国,后加入英国国教会。他同情英国统治下的爱尔兰人民,积极参加他们为争取自由和民族独立的斗争。他以政治讽刺文著世,其文笔犀利、讽刺尖锐、文章推理严密,用词简洁、语言朴实清晰,被认为是英语的典范,《格列佛游记》是他的代表作之一。
12. We laugh because we are meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too.
【结构简析】mean to do是打算或注定要…,一般用于被动。
【参考译文】我们笑是因为想笑,可是我们也想哭。是指小人国和邻国仅仅为打鸡蛋一类小事而打仗可笑,确实也是可悲。作者结合现实指出是人类悲剧之所在。

写作方法与文章大意
 文章以部部深入,一般到具体的写作手法论及笑是人类特有的功能。
 形式多种、效果一样。天下人有各种观点、制度、人际关系,对滑稽的东西都会报之以笑――一种一致的力量。
 笑基于幽默感,有了它,人们会乐观、愉快、轻松,不偏不倚地对待一切,悲剧中寓以喜剧,幽默感又是人类开启幸福之门的钥匙。
 论及的同时作者佐以例子,卓别林的早期电影,《格列佛游记》中的小人国战争等。

答案详解
1. A 幽默感。文章一开始就提出人类有别于动物是人有笑的功能,世界纷争繁杂、人际关系因意识观点差异而对峙,国家制度不一,但人们都能笑。笑基于人类最复杂而又微妙的品质――幽默感。反过来说没有幽默感的人恐怕难以笑。第二段正式指出:幽默感表现形式多种多样,而笑可由微笑到狂笑种种,但其效果相同,幽默感有助于我们保持正确的价值观。这是政治狂热者所缺乏的特征。如果我们能看见滑稽可笑的一面,我们就不会犯过于看重自己的错误。我们总会记得悲剧离喜剧不愿,因此,我们不会有偏重某一测的观点。第四段画龙点睛的指出幽默是人类最重要的特征,因为它和笑声结合在一起。而笑又是和幸福联系在一起。勇气、决心、创造力特征,我们和其他生命形式共享,而幽默感是人类所独有的。如果幸福是我们生活的伟大目标,那幽默感就是开启幸福的钥匙。
B.讽刺感。这是第三段讲的内容,讽刺的功能,但不是人类最重要的特征。C.笑感。D.历史观点。
2. C 作者提卓别林的电影的目的是证明某些喜剧模式对全世界都有吸引力。
A.它可以取悦任何人。B.人类和动物不同。D.证明人有同样笑的功能。
3. B使各种事情重新相等和均衡。第三段着重讲了这一点。人类在痛苦中挣扎,常处于战争的边缘。政治实现令人绝望,在这种处境中,对某些政治事物的讽刺挖苦和漫画可以使各种心理重新平衡,可使失去均衡感的政客地下高傲头颅;可使我看见许多深邃的事情荒谬可笑。
A.表现行为的荒唐。C.使政治家气馁。D.表现世界上太多的令人沮丧之事。
4. A它可以以讽刺的手法解释政治时间的真相。
B.这可促使人民暴动。C.它表示了悲剧和喜剧相联系。D.它能使人哭。
5. A小说家。
B.诗人。C.戏剧家。D.散文家。

Passage Eight (The Improving Economic Situation In Greece)
 Greece, economically, is in the black. With very little to export other than such farm products as tobacco, cotton and fruit, the country earns enough from ‘invisible earnings’ to pay for its needed, growing imports. From the sending out of things the Greeks, earn only $285 million; from tourism, shipping and the remittances of Greeks abroad, the country takes in an additional #375 million and this washes out the almost $400 million by which imports exceed exports.
 It has a balanced budget. Although more than one drachma out of four goes for defense, the government ended a recent year with a slight surplus -- $66 million. Greece has a decent reserve of almost a third of a billion dollars in gold and foreign exchange. It has a government not dependent on coalescing incompatible parties to obtain parliamentary majorities.
 In thus summarizing a few happy highlights, I don’t mean to minimize the vast extent of Greece’s problems. It is the poorest country by a wide margin in Free Europe, and poverty is widespread. At best an annual income of $60 to $70 is the lot of many a peasant, and substantial unemployment plagues the countryside, cities, and towns of Greece. There are few natural resources on which to build any substantial industrial base. Some years ago I wrote here:
 “Greek statesmanship will have to create an atmosphere in which home and foreign savings will willingly seek investment opportunities in the back ward economy of Greece. So far, most American and other foreign attempt have bogged down in the Greek government’s red tape and shrewdness about small points.”
 Great strides have been made. As far back as 1956, expanding tourism seemed a logical way to bring needed foreign currencies and additional jobs to Greece. At that time I talked with the Hilton Hotel people, who had been examining hotel possibilities, and to the Greek government division responsible for this area of the economy. They were hopelessly deadlocked in almost total differences of opinion and outlook.
 Today most of the incredibly varied, beautiful, historical sights of Greece have new, if in many cases modest, tourist facilities. Tourism itself has jumped from approximately $31 million to over $90 million. There is both a magnificent new Hilton Hotel in Athens and a completely modernized, greatly expanded Grande Bretagne, as well as other first-rate new hotels. And the advent of jets has made Athens as accessible as Paris or Rome – without the sky-high prices of traffic-choked streets of either.

1. The title below that best expresses the ideas of this passage is
[A] Greek income and expenditures.
[B] The improving economic situation in Greece.
[C] The value of tourism.
[D] Military expenditures.
2. Many peasants earn less than
[A] $60 a week.
[B] $2 a week.
[C] $1 a day.
[D] $10 a month.
3. The Greek Government spends
[A] more than 25%of its budget on military terms.
[B] More than its collects.
[C] A third of a billion dollars in gold.
[D] Less than 25% of its budget on military terms.
4. According to the passage, Greece has
[A] a dictatorship.
[B] a monarchy.
[C] a single majority party.
[D] too much red tape.
5. Greece imports annually goods and materials
[A] totaling almost $700 million.
[B] that balance exports.
[C] that are paid by tourists.
[D] costing $66 million.

Vocabulary
1. remittance   汇款(额)
2. wash out   洗掉,取消、告吹、冲掉、筋疲力尽
3. drachma   古希腊银币   德拉克马(现代希腊货币单位)
4. lot    份额
5. incompatible  水火不相容的,不能共存的
6. coalesce   (政党)联合,愈合,接合
7. highlight   光线最强处,最重要部分,最精彩场面
8. margin   (成本和售价的)差额,空白,边缘
9. bog down   陷于困境,使停顿
10. red tape   官样文章,烦琐和拖拉的公务程序
11. shrewdness  清明,机灵
12. deadlock   僵局,僵持;使陷于僵局

难句译注
1. Greece, economically is in the black.
【参考译文】希腊经济上说是赢利/富裕的
2. With very little export other than such farm products as tobacco, cotton and fruit, the country earns enough from invisible earnings to pay its needed, growing imports.
【参考译文】除了农产品,如烟草、棉花和水果之外,希腊没有什么出口货,但它从“无形的收益”中挣不少,足够致富所需的一切――日益增长的进口货。
3. This washes out almost $400 million by which imports exceed exports.
【参考译文】这笔钱冲掉了进口超过出口近4亿美元的差额。
4. So far most American and other foreign attempts have bogged down in the Greek government’s red tape and shrewdness about small points.
【参考译文】到目前为止由于希腊政府那种繁琐而又拖拉的公务程序和对小事的精明,大多数美国和其他国家的尝试的工作都陷入困境。
5. They were hopelessly deadlocked in almost total differences of opinion and outlook.
【参考译文】他们绝望地陷于意见和观点完全分歧的僵局之中。
6. And the advent of jets has made Athens as accessible as Paris and Rome – without the sky-high prices of traffic chocked streets of either.
【参考译文】喷气式飞机的发展使雅典和巴黎、罗马一样很容易到达,却没有那两个城市的交通堵塞的接到的高昂代价。

写作方法与文章大意
 这是一篇以过去和现在对比的手法,论述了希腊经济,主要是旅游业的发展。过去,希腊以无形资产赢得之利润,来消除赤字,还可稍有节余。但贫穷、事业情况严重,政府办事拖拉、繁琐也影响国外的投资,虽然早在1956年就准备扩展旅游业,但意见分歧。现在,情况大变,就旅游一项年收入由3100万增至9000万美元。

答案详解
1. B 希腊经济形式的改善。文章围绕这一中心而写。文章一开始就提出希腊出口除了农产品之外,没有什么东西,而无形资产如旅游、运输和国外的汇款等可挣得37500万美元。两项加在一起来抵消入超赤字近4亿美元,稍有结余。第三段指出,希腊是自由欧洲最穷的国家,许多农民年收入为60-70美元。失业现象席卷城市乡镇,建立工业基地的自然资源极少。政府的繁琐事务程序,关注琐事等情况使美国和其他国家试图展开工作陷于停滞状态。第四段开始指出1956年起开拓旅游业,不过意见还是分歧。第五断提出今天惊人的变化,美丽的历史古城呈现新貌,就旅游一项收入由3100万增至9000万美元。旅馆面貌大变。
A.希腊的收支。C.旅游的价值。D.军事费用。
2. B少于2美元一星期。文章第三段第三句:最佳情况,年收入为60-70美元使大多数农民的份额。所以B项最接近年收入。
A.60美元一星期。C.一天一美元。D.一个月10美元。
3. A 百分之25以上用于军事。第二段:虽然四个德拉克马中有一个用于国防,政府最终还稍有结余――6600万美元。
B.比收入的还多。C.十亿金子中的三分之一。D.少于百分之25。
4. C单一大党。第二段:希腊的政府不依靠水火不相容的政党之间的合作来取得一会的多数席位,这说明是单一大党。
A.独裁、专政。B.君主政体。D.太多的繁琐程序。
5. A总计几乎在7亿美元左右。第一段中提到希腊出口商品价值28500万美元,而进口超出出口4亿美元。两者相加为6亿2千5百万美元,相当于几乎在7亿美元左右。
B.和出口平衡。C.由旅游者支付。D.花费6600万美元。

Passage Nine (The Program-Federal Government Helps Minority Business)
 Federal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the 1960’s when the Small Business Administration (SBA) began making federally guaranteed loans and government-sponsored management and technical assistance available to minority business enterprises. While this program enabled many minority entrepreneurs to form new businesses, the results were disappointing, since managerial inexperience, unfavorable locations, and capital shortages led to high failure rates. Even 15 years after the program was implemented, minority business receipts were not quite two percent of the national economy’s total receipts.
 Recently federal policymakers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the minority business sector by moving away from directly aiding small minority enterprises and toward supporting large, growth-oriented minority firms through intermediary companies. In this approach, large corporations participate in the development of successful and stable minority businesses by making use of government-sponsored venture capital. The capital is used by a participating company to establish a Minority Enterprise Small Businesses that have potential to become future suppliers of customers of the sponsoring company.
 MESBIC’s are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience, as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management experience and small amounts of capital available. Further, since potential markets for the minority businesses already exist through the sponsoring companies, the minority businesses face considerably less risk in terms of location and market fluctuation. Following early financial and operating problems, sponsoring corporations began to capitalize MESBIC’s far above the legal minimum of $500,000 in order to generate sufficient income and to sustain the quality of management needed. MESBIC’s are now emerging as increasingly important financing sources for minority enterprises.
 Ironically, MESBIC staffs, which usually consist of Hispanic and Black professionals, tend to approach investments in minority firms more pragmatically than do many MESBIC directors, who are usually senior managers from sponsoring corporations. The latter often still think mainly in terms of the ‘social responsibility approach’ and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria would warrant. Such differences in viewpoint have produced uneasiness among many minority staff members, who feel that minority entrepreneurs and businesses should be judged by established business considerations. These staff members believe their point of view is closer to the original philosophy of MESBIC’s and they are concerned that, unless a more prudent course if followed, MESBIC directors may revert to policies likely to re-create the disappointing results of the original SBA approach.

1. Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
[A] The use of MESBIC’s for aiding minority entrepreneurs seems to have greater potential for success than does the original SBA approach.
[B] There is a crucial difference in point of view between the staff and directors of some MESBIC’s.
[C] After initial problems with management and marketing, minority businesses have begun to expand at a steady rate.
[D] Minority entrepreneurs wishing to form new businesses now have several equally successful federal programs on which to rely.
2. According to the passage, the MESBIC approach differ s from the SBA approach in that MESBIC’s
[A] seek federal contracts to provide market for minority businesses.
[B] Encourage minority businesses to provide markets for other minority businesses.
[C] Attempt to maintain a specified rate of growth in the minority business sector.
[D] Rely on the participation of large corporations to finance minority businesses.
3. Which of the following statements about the SBA program can be inferred from the passage?
[A] The maximum term for loans made to recipient businesses was 15 years.
[B] Business loans were considered to be more useful to recipient businesses than was management and technical assistance.
[C] The anticipated failure rate for recipient businesses was significantly lower than the rate that actually resulted.
[D] Recipient businesses were encouraged to relocate to areas more favorable for business development.
4. The author refers to the ‘financial and operating problems’ encountered by MESBIC’s primarily in order to
[A] broaden the scope of the discussion to include the legal considerations of funding MESBIC’s through sponsoring companies.
[B] call attention to the fact that MESBIC’s must receive adequate funding in order to function effectively.
[C] show that sponsoring companies were willing to invest only $500,000 of government-sponsored venture capital in the original MESBIC’s.
[D] Compare SBA and MESBIC limits on minimum funding.
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the attitude of some MESBIC staff member toward the investments preferred by some MESBIC directors can be best described as
[A] disappointing.
[B] Indifferent.
[C] Shocked.
[D] Defensive.

Vocabulary
1. implement     执行,履行
2. growth-oriented   增长潜力的,有发展性的
3. intermediary company  中介公司,中间公司
4. venture capital    风险资本
5. entrepreneur    企业家,创业者
6. fluctuation    波动,涨落,起伏
7. pragmatically    实用地

难句译注
1. Even 15 years after the program was implemented minority business receipts were not quite two percent of the national economy’s total receipts.
【参考译文】甚至在这个计划执行后15年,少数民族工业的收入还不到全国总收入的2%。
2. Recently federal policy makers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the supporting large, growth oriented minority firms through intermediary companies.
【参考译文】最近,联邦决策者采取一项措施,旨在加速少数民族工商业的发展,他们不再直接帮助小型的少数民族企业,而是转向通过中间公司来支持规模较大、有发展潜力的少数民族公司。
3. By making use of government-sponsored venture capital.
利用政府资助的风险资本。
4. The MESBIC then provides capital and guidance to minority businesses that have potential to become future suppliers or customers of the sponsoring company.
【参考译文】然后再由MESBIC向那些少数民族企业提供资金、进行指导。这些企业是有成为赞助公司的未来供应商或客户的潜力的。
5. MESBIC – minority enterprise small business investment company
少数民族小型企业投资公司。
6. MESBIC’s are the result of the belief that providing established firms with easier access to relevant management techniques and more job-specific experience, as well as substantial amounts of capital, gives those firms a greater opportunity to develop sound business foundations than does simply making general management experience and small amounts of capital available.
【参考译文】MESBIC的建立基于这种信念:为已建公司提供方便,使它更容易获得相关的管理技术更具体的工作经验以及大笔资金要比简单地给予一般管理经验和小笔资金更能使它们获得机会去建立稳固的商业基础。
7. The latter often still think mainly in terms of the ‘social responsibility approach’ and thus seem to prefer deals that are riskier and less attractive than normal investment criteria would warrant.
【参考译文】后者――高级经理们――在有大多数情况下,仍然常常从“社会责任的角度”来考虑问题,因此,他们似乎更倾向于选择那些比正常投资标准更具风险性,而不太引人注目的项目。

写作方法与文章大意
 文章主要采用因果以及对比的写作方法。先点出SBA计划――联邦政府对少数民族去也的赞助()的失败及其原因。
 为此,联邦决策者改变方法,通过中介公司,建立MESBIC。由它来帮助少数民族企业――使其获得相应的管理技术、具体工作经验和大量资金,甚至潜在的市场――取得了成功。
 可内部存在问题,MESBIC的职工和领导者之间的意见分歧,职工的投资观点更切实际,而领导者仍从“社会责任的角度”来考虑问题,若不改变,有可能重蹈SBA之覆辙。

答案详解
1. A 运用MESBIC来帮助少数民族企业似乎比原来SBA的方法更具成功的可能性。文章一开始就点名SBA(小型企业管理局)向少数民族企业提供联邦保证贷款,政府资助管理和技术方面的帮助,结果令人失望。组建成的少数民族新企业由于管理上缺乏经验、地点不佳、资金短缺而导致失败的情况很多。其他见难句译注1、2、3。总之在MESBIC支持下:为它的潜在市场提供大量资金等,使它们在地点和市场流通方面风险小的多,从而带来足够的收入和保持所需的管理质量。这一切都说明MESBIC比SBA的成功可能性大。
B.MESBIC中的领导者和职工方面在观点上有着至关重要的分歧。C.经历了早期管理和市场问题后,少数民族企业已开始稳步发展。D.希望组建新公司的少数民族企业家已有好几个成功的联邦计划可依靠。
2. D 依靠打工四向少数民族企业投资。见第二段第二句:大公司利用政府资助的风险资本参与成功而又稳固的少数民族企业的发展。参与的大公司用这笔资金建立了“少数民族小型企业投资公司”(MESBIC)
A.寻求为少数民族企业提供市场联邦合同。B.鼓励少数民族企业为其他少数民族企业提供市场。C.试图在少数民族部门保持特定的增长率。
3. C 预期加入SBA项目中的公司的失败率比实际失败率低得多。文内没有直接点出,而是从(见第一题注释)SBA帮助的企业失败率很高――令人失望,从而推断C项结论。
A.给企业贷款最高期限为15年。B.商业贷款对企业来说远笔管理和技术帮助重要。D.鼓励接受贷款企业重新寻找利于企业发展的地区。
4. B 为的是引人注意这一实际情况:MESBIC必须取得足够的资金才能有效地运转。这在第三段最后一句:在经历了早期财政和运行问题后,赞助公司给MESBIC注入的资金远远超过了50万美元的法定最低限额,以获得足够的收入并保持所需的管理质量。MESBIC现在正成为日益重要的少数民族企业的资金来源。这说明没有足够的资金是难以有效运转的。
A.扩大讨论范围以包括通过赞助公司投资MESBIC的合理性。C.表明赞助公司愿意在原来的MESBIC只投资50万政府资助的风险资本。D.对比SBA和MESBIC最低投资限额。
5. A 失望。文章最后一段MESBIC的职工――一般是拉美和黑人专业人员在少数民族公司的投资上比MEBSIC的领导者更切实际。这些高级经理从社会责任角度看问题,会选择更具风险性,不太吸引人的项目。观点分歧使许多少数民族职工感到不安,他们认为应以公司的业务爆出来评价少数民族企业家及其企业。者充分说明MEBSIC的职工对领导所青睐的投资项目不满意和失望。
B.漠不关心。C.震惊。D.持保留态度。

        Passage Ten (The Importance of Independent Thinking)
No one can be a great thinker who does not realize that as a thinker it is her first duty to   follow her intellect to whatever conclusions it may lead. Truth gains more even by the errors of one who with due study and preparation, thinks for himself, than by the true opinions of those who only hold them because they do not suffer themselves to think. No that it is solely, of chiefly, to form great thinkers that freedom of thinking is required. One the contrary, it is as much or even more indispensable to enable average human beings to attain the mental stature which they are capable of. There have been and many again be great individual thinkers in a general atmosphere of mental slavery. But there never has been, nor ever will be, in that atmosphere an intellectually active people. Where any of heterodox speculation was for a time suspended, where there is a tacit convention that principles are not to be disputed: where the discussion of the greatest questions which can occupy humanity is considered to be closed, we cannot hope to find that generally high scale of mental activity which has made some periods of history so remarkable. Never when controversy avoided the subjects which are large and important enough to kindle enthusiasm was the mind of a people stirred up fro9m its foundation and the impulse given which raised even persons of the most ordinary intellect to something of the dignity of thinking beings.
She who knows only her own side of the case knows little of that. Her reasons may be food, and no one may have been able to refute them. But if she s equally unable to refute the reasons of the opposite side; if she does not so much as know what they are, she has no ground for preferring either opinion. The rational position for her would be suspension of judgment, and unless she contents herself with that, she is either led by authority, or adopts, like the generality of the world the side to which she feels the most inclination. Nor is it enough that she should heat the arguments of adversaries from her own teachers, presented as they state them, and accompanied by what they offer as refutations, That is not the way to do justice to the arguments, or bring them into real contact with her own mind. She must be able to hear them form persons who actually believe them; who defend them in earnest, and do their very utmost for them. She must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form; she must feel the whole force of the difficulty which the true view of the subject has to encounter and dispose of; else she will never really possess herself of the portion of truth which meets and removes that difficulty. Ninety-nine in a hundred of what are called educated persons are in this condition; even of those who can argue fluently for their opinions. Their conclusion may be true, but it might be false for anything they know; they have never thrown themselves into the mental position of those who think differently form them and considered what such persons may have to say; and consequently they do not, in any proper sense of the word, know the doctrines which they themselves profess.
 
1. The best title for this passage is
[A] The Age of Reason            [B] The need for Independent Thinking
[C] The Value of Reason           [D] Stirring People’s Minds
2. According to the author, it is always advisable to
[A] have opinions which cannot be refuted.
[B] adopt the point of view to which one feels the most inclination.
[C] be acquainted with the arguments favoring the point of view with which one disagrees,
[D] suspend heterodox speculation in favor of doctrinaire approaches.
3. According to the author, in a great period such as the Renaissance we may expect to find
[A] acceptance of truth              [B]   controversy over principles 
[C] inordinate enthusiasm            [D]   a dread of heterodox speculation
4. According to the author, the person who holds orthodox beliefs without examination may be described in all of the following ways EXCEPT as
[A] enslaved by tradition             [B]   less than fully rational
[C] determinded on controversy        [D]   having a closed mind
5. It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements
[A] A truly great thinker makes no mistakes.
[B] Periods of intellectual achievement are periods of unorthodox reflection,
[C] The  refutation of accepted ideas can best be provided by one’s own teachers.
[D] excessive controversy prevents clear thinking,

Vocabulary
1.  stature               高度,境界,状况
2.  heterodox            不合乎公认的标准的,异端的,异教的
3.  tacit                 心照不宣
4.  refute                反驳
5.  adversary             对立面,对手,敌人
6.  plausible             善于花言巧语的/辞令的,似乎有理的/有可能的
7.  doctrine              教义,学说
8.  profess               表示,明言,承认,自称,信奉

难句译注
1. True gains more even by the errors of one who with due study and preparation, thinks for himself, then by the true opinions of those who only hold them because they do not suffer themselves to think.
[参考译文]  真理甚至从一个经过恰当研究和准备进行独立思考的人的错误中获得更多的东西,而从那些只是因为不予思考却持有正确的观点中获得的少(一种经过恰当的研究和准备进行独立思考的人犯的错误,另一种人是不予思考的却持有正确的观点,真理从前者错误中获得的东西比从后者的正确观点中获得的要多)。
2.   mental slavery     思想禁锢,精神受奴役状态
3.  Never when controversy avoided the subjects which are large and important enough to     kindle enthusiasm was the mind of a people stirred up from its foundation and the impulse given which raised even persons of the most ordinary intellect to something of the dignity of thinking beings.
[结构简析]  这是一句以Never否定词开头的倒装句,正常的句序应把never放在句中,形成:the mind of people was never stirred up from its foundations
[参考译文]  当辩论比开重大课题,重大到足以燃起/激起人们激/热情的课题时,那么一个民族的思想绝不会从天赋的情感和原始的基础上升华,甚至使最普通智力的人上升到优点庄严的思想家水平上。
4. The rational position for her would be suspension of judgement, and unless she contents herself with that, she is either led by authority, or adopts, like the generality of the world, the side to which she feels the most inclination.
[参考译文]  对她来说理智的立场是停止判断,而且除非她满足于这一点,否则,她不是为权威人物的观点所左右,后者就像世界上芸芸众生一样,倒向她感觉最倾向的一边。
5. That is not the way to do justice to the arguments, or bring them into teal contact with her own mind.
[结构简析]  do justice to 公平对待,适当处理。 Bring……into contact with  使和……接触/联系。
[参考译文]   这不是对正确观点评价的方法,也不能使自己的思想真正接触到论点的实质。
6. She must know them in their most plausible and persuasive form; she must feel the whole force of the difficulty which the true view of the subject has to encounter and dispose of; else she will never really possess herself of the portion of truth which meets and removes that difficulty.
[结构简析]   most plausible and persuasive form 很善于辞令和有说服力形式。  possess oneself of  获得,据有,把……占为己有。  them=arguments。 else  否则的话。
7. Their conclusion may be true, but it might be false for anything they know; they have never thrown themselves into the mental position of those who think differently form them and considered what such persons may have to say; and consequently they do not, in any proper sense of the word, know the doctrines which they themselves profess.
[结构简析]    throw oneself into…position   设身处地,使自己处于……位置/地点。

写作方法与文章大意
这是一篇由一般到具体,重要采用正反对比,推理的写作方法的文章,逻辑性强,正反论证,句子结构复杂冗长,分两段给出内容,第一段重点在:伟大的思想家的首要责任是奠定遵循自己智力所得出的结论。由此引起思想家和思想活跃的人民同时代环境的关系。只有思想后月的时期,才有伟大的思想家和活跃的人民,因为他们可以讨论重大主题,而在思想禁锢时期,只能产生个别伟大思想家。第二段具体的论证了独立思考涉及两方面,既如自己一方种种,也得知对手的一方种种(内容,推理,论点),才能真正获得真理。

答案详解
1. B 独立思考的必要性。见难句译注1。这里说明进行独立思考的人即使犯错误,真理也能从中获得东西,而那些懒于思考人,即使持有正确的观点,真理也难以获得东西。第一段还点明思想禁锢时期,即不能进行独立思考时期,难以讨论重大议题,产生不了活跃的人民,绝不会出现像辉煌的文艺复兴那种时期(见第二题注)。第二段也是围绕独立思考而写,只是从具体点着眼:人只知自己,不知对方无法获得真理,只有独立思考两方,才能不为权威所左右,不会跟着自己感觉走,最终知道自己的真正主张。
A. 理性时代。  C. 驳斥的价值。  D.  激发人民的思想。
2. C 熟悉有利于自己不同意/反对观点的论点。这是作者在第二段讲述的重要论点。他认为一个人只知自己一方,推理极好,无人能反驳,却不知对方的推理,也不能够予以反驳的话,他就无权选择两方的任一论点,其理智位置是停止判断。否则她就会(像世界上芸芸众生那样)不是为权威所“引导”,就是跟着感觉(的倾向)走。其二,作者提出:光听自己的老师讲述对立面的论点,以及他们所提出的反驳论点。只是不够的,必须倾听那些人(他们真正相信对立的观点)的论点,并为此积极热情,竭尽全力辩护,才能使自己的思想和独立论点接触,公正的作出公正的判断。
A. 具有不能驳斥的观点。  B. 采取个人感觉最倾向的观点。 D. 停止有利于教条主义研究的异端思考。
3. B 辩论原则问题。答案在第一段:在思想禁锢的气氛中,过去,现在可能会产生个别的思想家,但绝不会有思想活跃的人民,在那里有一种心照不宣的惯律:原则决不能讨论——认为占据人类心灵的最重大问题的讨论应封闭,我们不能期望看到一般高级的思想活动。这种思想活动曾使历史上某些时期光辉灿烂。而文艺复兴就是思想活动的顶峰时期,必然会讨论原则问题,所以选B 。
A. 接受真理,周经过讨论才能接受真理。 C. 过度的热情。  D. 害怕异端思考。
4. C. 在辩论上,坚定不移。这是一道推断题,一般讲:持有未经检验的正统信仰的人不会独立思考,更不会怀疑他所信仰的东西。
A. 为传统所奴役。 B. 不怎么理智。 D. 头脑闭塞。这种人必然受传统思想控制,不理智更不愿接受外界新鲜事物。
5. B. 在思想方面取得成就的时期就是进行非正统反思的时期。见3题注释。
A.  一个真正的思想家不犯错误。 C. 一个人的老师最能提供所接受思想观点的反驳。 D. 过度的辩论会制止清晰的思考。

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