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最新英语高考考前常用词汇考点知识归纳
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2008-3-21 | 字体: |
1.在英语中,do, have, make, take这四个动词,加上名词作宾语(名词前可有形容词)构成词组,可以表达许多不同含义,其意义相当于在名词前加上一个相关动词,现分述如下:
(1)do+名词e.g. Mary has done (=has written) an article. 玛丽写了一篇文章。
He will do(=draw) a large portrait of Ren Changxia.他要为任长霞画一幅大画像。
 
do computer study=study computer
do the room=clean the room
do the dishes=wash the dishes
do one’s hair=comb one’s hair
do one’s teeth=brush one’s teeth
do the fish=cook the fish
do the puzzle=work out the puzzle
do science=study science
do a comedy=act a comedy
do a concert=hear a concert
do the tower=visit the tower
do Japan=visit Japan
do 20 miles=travel 20 miles
do one’s guests well=serve one’s guests well
 
有时宾语也可用doing,并在doing前加some。
do some reading=read some books, read some pages
do some studying=study something
do some walking=walk for some time
还有do most of the talking, do some morning shopping等。
(2)have+名词  e.g. We had a long talk(=talked for a long time) last Sunday. 上星期天我们进行了一次长谈。
They’re having a rest(=resting). 他们在休息。
此类结构常见的还有:have a chat, have a look at…,have a drink, have an interview, have a smoke, have a fight, have a bath, have a dream
名词前可有修饰成分,如have no respect, have no wish, have some good laughs, have one more try等。
有时意义上等于在名词前加上一个相关的动词,如:
 
have a lesson (class)上一节课
have an X-ray进行X光检查
have a great success取得很大成功
have a small accident出了小事故
have a headache(a flu, cold)得头疼病(流感,感冒)
have a baby生孩子
have one’s advice听从某人的建议
have a telegram收到一封电报
have an answer有了答案
 
(3)make+名词(相当于名词的动词含义)
e.g. The police made an examination in her room. 警察检查了她的房间。
The teacher made a clear explanation. 老师清楚地作了解释。
We made a comparison of the two articles. 我们把这两篇文章作了比较。
make an attempt=attempt       make a suggest=suggest
还有make a visit参观,make a long stay住了很长时间,make another start又重新开始了,make preparations作准备,make arrangements作安排,make decisions作决定,make a choice作选择,make a map画一张地图,make tea沏茶,make an expression留下印象
(4)take+名词(相当于名词相应的动词)
e.g. He took a look at(=look at) this book. 他看了一下这本书。
I want to take a nap(=nap). 我想午休一会儿。
这类词组还有:
 
take a bath 洗澡
take a walk散步
take exercise进行锻炼
take an action采取行动
take an examination进行考试,进行检查
take a trip旅行
take a vacation度假
 
相当于“吃,喝,吸(入)”,如:
take the food, take pills, take medicine, take tea (coffee),take a glass of beer, take sugar, take a breath of fresh air,还有:take a taxi(bus, train…)坐出租车(公共汽车,火车……)
 
take a room要一个房间,租用一个房间
take one’s advice接受……的建议
take a job承担一项工作
take one’s degree接受……学位
take chemistry选学化学
 
2.with的一种用法
with之后可以加一个抽象名词,构成名词短语,作用相当于这一名词相对应的副词。
e.g. He looked at her with respect(=respectfully). 他恭敬地看着她。
She told Tom the story with a smile(=smilingly). 她微笑着给汤姆讲了个故事。
He accepted the invitation with pleasure(=pleasurably). 他愉快地接受了邀请。
这类词组常见的还有:
 
with calmness=calmly冷静地
with curiosity=curiously好奇地
with surprise=surprisingly惊奇地
with ease=easily轻易地
with difficulty 艰难地
with amazement惊奇地
with sympathy同情地
with disapproval不满地
with fear害怕地
with delight (joy)高兴地
with envy妒忌地
with anger生气地
with efficiency有效地
with one accord voice异口同声地
with tears in one’s eyes含泪地
 
in+名词也可以这样用。例如:
“How did you come here?”He asked in surprise(=surprisingly).“你是怎么到这儿的?”他惊奇地问。
Jack shut his eyes in fear(fearfully). 杰克害怕得闭上了眼睛。
His sister stared at him in amazement(=amazingly). 他的妹妹惊奇地看着他。
He came home in high cheerfulness(=cheerfully). 他兴高采烈地回了家。
常见的这类词组还有:
 
in terror害怕地
in astonishment惊奇地
in anxiety焦急地
in amazement惊奇地
in confusion大惑不解地
in alarm惊慌地
in curiosity好奇地
in great happiness非常愉快地
in a hurry急忙地
in a low voice低声地
in hatred and despair满怀仇恨和绝望地
in earnest 认真地
 
Ⅲ.同义词语辨析
1.murder, kill, massacre
(1)murder是“谋杀,杀害”的意思。英语意思是to kill unlawfully, especially on purpose。
e.g. The bandits murdered the man for his money. 歹徒为了谋取他的钱而杀害了他。
Every two hours someone was murdered. 每两个小时就有一人被谋杀。
(2)kill用于因凶器或在非常事故中死亡的场合。英语的意思是cause to die。
e.g. His father was killed in a railway accident. 他父亲在一次火车事故中身亡。
Only a few people were killed in the earthquake. 地震中只有少数人死亡。
He killed him with a spear. 他用矛刺死了他。
kill还可作“使……难受之极,使……极其尴尬,使失去,消磨(时间)”解。
e.g. My back killed me. 我的背非常难受。
It killed him to admit he is wrong. 承认他错了使他感到极为尴尬。
The joy killed the audience. 这个玩笑让观众笑得要死。
The train was late, so we killed time by playing cards. 火车晚点了,我们就打牌消磨时间。
(3)massacre“大屠杀”,英语意思是to kill a number of people without mercy。
e.g. When the soldiers captured the town, they massacred all the inhabitants. 当敌兵占领这座城市后,他们屠杀了城里的所有居民。
另外,表示“为……而献出生命”的同义词组有:
 
devote one’s life to…
dedicate one’s life to…
give one’s life for…
lay down one’s life for…
lose one’s life for…
 
另外还有一些词组可以用来表示“死”,但此用法较委婉:
(sb.) pass away; one’s heart stop beating forever;
(sb.) sleep peacefully; those who have fallen;
(sth.) cost sb. his life; sb.is dead and gone;
(sb.) be in heaven for some time
2.ask for, require, demand
(1)ask for指要求得到具体的物质的东西,普通用词。也可用ask sb.to do sth.表示“要求某人做某事”,语气较客气。
e.g. He asked for some money. 他让了一些钱。
He asked his mother to wake him at six in the morning. 他让他母亲早上六点叫醒他。
I asked that I (should be) was allowed to see her. 我请求允许我看望她。
(2)require“要求,有必要”,语气不如demand强,一般强调从需要、规章、惯例出发,要求别人做某事,含有客观上必要的,缺此不可的性质。
e.g. He has done all that was required of him. 凡需要他做的他都做了。
How many days will be required to finish this work? 完成这项工作需要多少天?
(3)demand“要求,需要”,指坚持要得到某物或坚持要做某事,用于人时,通常表示提出要求的一方认为他们有权这样做,语气较强烈,有时带有强制的意味;用于物时,指一般的“需要”,这时可和require, want, need等词互换。
e.g. The Iraqi people demanded that the USA soldiers should get out of Iraq.
伊拉克人要求美国兵从伊拉克撤退。
All his life he believed that it was right and necessary to demand changes in society if people did not have their civil rights. 整个一生他都认为如果人民没有权利的话,要求社会变革是正确的,而且是必要的。
The work demands(=requires, wants, needs, etc,) great skill. 这个工作需要熟练的技巧。
Ⅳ.能力训练
1.同义句转换
他们把黑人作为奴隶对待。
 
(1)They ______ blacks as slaves.
(2)They ______ blacks as slaves.
(3)They ______ blacks as slaves.
(4)They ______ blacks as slaves.
(5)They ______ ______blacks as slaves.
(6)They ______ blacks as slaves.
(7)They ______ blacks ______ ______ slaves.
 
答案:(1)treated   (2)took   (3)regarded   (4)had   (5)looked on   (6)considered (7)considered; to be
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