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高考单选英语陷阱-插入隔离型
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:网易教育 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2006-4-14 | 字体: |

警惕!高考英语陷阱       Trap 10 插入隔离型

有时一个本来很简单的句子,由于表达的需要,在其中置入一个插入成分,或将某些成分从正常位置调入一个在同学们看来属“非正常”的位置(如宾语从句前置等),则很有可能给同学们的理解带来困难(尤其是阅读能力不是很好的同学会更感困难)。假若命题人就此命题,那就更麻烦了。请看以下几个实例:
 1. He told me the news _____, believe it or not, he had earned $1 000 in a single day.

  A. that   B. which   C. as   D. because

  你知道句中的believe it or not是什么成分吗?你认为此题应填which吗?换句话说,填空句是一个非限制性定语从句吗?如果你正是这样认为的,那你就大错特错了。

  2. She promised _____ he had enough money she would marry him.
A. that    B. if    C. that if    D. if that

  此题答案应选A还是B?另外,that与if可以连用吗?若可以,是that if还是if that?其中的that可以省略吗?

  3. “Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons,_____ to go to university.” “So do I.”

  A. hope     B. hopes     C. hoping     D. hoped

  空白处是谓语还是非谓语?该填hope(s)还是hoping?其中的working hard at his or her lessons在句中起什么作用?

  你若想知道以上问题的答案,或想知道其他更多相关问题的答案,请继续往下读。
1.注意插入成分My dear friend.
Don't you know _____, my dear friend, it is you that she loves?

  A. who   B. which   C. that    D. what


  此题容易误选A或B,选A者认为这是指人的,故用who;选B者认为这是非限制性定语从句,两者都是误认为这是定语从句(注意没有先行词),其实此题应选C,that引导的是一个宾语从句(用做动词know的宾语),它只是被句中的插入语my dear friend隔开罢了。其实此句也可说成:My dear friend, don't you know that it is you that she loves?

  I think_____, though I could be mistaken, he liked me.

  A. who     B. which      C. that      D. what

  答案选C,句子可改写为:I think that he liked me, though I could be mistaken.即that he liked me是动词think之宾语从句。
2. believe it or not是插入成分

  He told me the news_____, believe it or not, he had earned $1 000 in a single day.

  A. that     B. which    C. as      D. because

  此题容易误选B,误认为这是非限制性定语从句。其实此题应选A,that引导的是一个用以修饰名词the news的同位语从句。不少同学之所以误选B,正是believe it or not(信不信由你)这个插入成分惹的祸。
3.不妨撇开这个if not better 

  Jim plays football_____, if not better than, Mike.

  A. as well      B. as well as     C. so well      D. so well as


  此句的正常结构是这样的:Jim plays football as well as Mike, if he doesn't play football better than Mike.由于命题者将其后的状语从句移至句中,且将其省略成if not better than,不少同学(尤其是一些阅读能力较差的同学)对这个句子的分析感到无从下手,从而导致误选。

  此题应选B,但容易误选A。这是一个省略句,其中的 if not better than=if he doesn't play football better than。全句意为:吉姆踢足球如果不是比迈克踢得更好,至少也是一样好。
  请做以下类似试题(答案均选D):

  (1) Her pronunciation is_____, if not better than, her brother's.

  A. as well      B. as well as        C. as good      D. as good as

  (2) This bridge is_____, if not stronger than, that one.

  A. so strong        B. as strong      C. so strong as      D. as strong as

  (3) He has been to Paris_____, if not more than, ten times.

  A. so much       B. so many       C. so much     D. as many as
4.这个when引导的是什么从句

The film brought the hours back to me ____ I was taken good care of in that far-away village.

  A. until     B. that   C. when    D. where

  此题容易误选B,误认为that引导一个宾语从句。其实此题应选C,when引导的是一个修饰the hours的定语从句,该题的难点是定语从句与先行词the hours被分离了。

  其实关系副词when引导的定语从句与先行词分离的情况在英语中并不少见,如:

  (1) The days are gone forever ______ we didn't have enough to eat. 

  A. since    B. that    C. where    D. when

  答案选D。when we didn't have enough to eat修饰the days。

  (2) I believe the time will soon come ______ there will be no weapons in the world.

  A. since    B. that    C. where    D. when
答案选D。when there will be no weapons in the world修饰the time。
5.这个which起什么作用

  Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play,_____, of course, made the others unhappy.

  A. who    B. which   C. this    D. what

  许多同学认为此题句子结构比较混乱,逗号太多,难于理清头绪。请同学们先看下面一句:

  Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, made theothers unhappy.一般同学都知道此题应填关系代词which,用以引导一个非限制性的定语从句。事实上,上面一题就是根据此题演变而来的,只不过在which与made之间插入了一个of course。所以上面一题应选B。

  (1) The meeting was put off,_____, of course, was exactly what we wanted.

  A. who    B. which    C. this    D. what

  (2) He was very fond of speaking French,_____, indeed, he spoke well.

  A. who    B. which    C. this    D. what

  以上两题答案均选B,which引导的为非限制性定语从句,其后的of course和indeed为插入成分。
6.填谓语动词还是非谓语动词

  “Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons,_____ to go to university.” “So do I.”

  A. hope   B. hopes  C. hoping   D. hoped

  此题应选B,句子的真正主语是each of the students,横线处填的hopes是句子谓语,其中的working hard at his or her lessons是插入句中修饰主语的非限制性定语。

 (1) Each of the students, hoping to pass the exam, _____the book.

  A. buying    B. having bought    C. should buy    D. to buy
答案选C,each of the students是句子主语,横线处为句子谓语,hoping to pass the exam是修饰句子主语的非限制性定语。

  (2) Many countries, for example, Mexico and Japan, _____a lot of earthquakes.

  A. have    B. having    C. to have    D. having had
答案选A,many countries是句子主语,横线处为句子谓语。
7.这个do you suppose是插入成分吗

  “I haven't heard from Henry for a long time.” “What do you suppose_____ to him?”

  A. was happening     B. to happen C. has happened    D. had happened

  此题容易误选B,认为动词suppose后接动词用不定式。正确答案应是C,其中的do you suppose是插入成分。
请看以下类例情形(答案均选D):

  (1) Who do you think _____the money?

  A. to steal    B. stealing    C. to have stolen    D. stole

  (2) What do you suppose _____ him think so?

  A. to make    B. making    C. to have made    D. made

  (3) Who do you guess _____ to the station to meet her?

  A. to go    B. going    C. to have gone    D. went

  (4) What do you imagine _____ him from going?

  A. to prevent   B. preventing  C. to have prevented   D. prevented

 以下各例中的do you think (believe, guess, etc)也是插入成分,但其后接的句子用陈述句语序:

  Who do you think he will marry?你认为他会同谁结婚?What do you think we should give her?你认为我们该给她点什么呢?When do you believe he will come?你认为他会什么时候来?What do you guess he wants to buy?你猜他想买什么呢?
8.这个to是怎么回事

  She looks forward every spring to _____ the flower-lined garden.

  A. visit    B. paying a visit C. walk in    D. walking in

  此题考查的关键是短语look forward to (盼望),其中的to是介词,不是不定式符号。由于句中插入了every spring 这一状语,使得look forward与介词to分离,从而使许多同学误选。

  有了以上分析,我们知道,横线前的to是介词,所以后接动词用动名词,应选B或D,由于pay a visit后不能带宾语(比较:pay a visit to后可带宾语),所以只能选D。
9.不要受however的干扰

  An awful accident, however, _____occur the other day.

  A. does    B. did  C. has to    D. had to

  此题正确答案应选B,句末的the other day意为“前几天”,所以句子应用过去时态,而选项D填进去不合题意,故选B。此句有两个难点:一是句中插有however一词,分散了同学们的注意力;二是所填选项B为许多同学所不熟悉的强调用法。

  (1) Your mother, however, ____ say that to us that day.

  A. does   B. did    C. is doing    D. was doing

  (2) Our math teacher, however, _____ speak English well.

  A. doing   B. does     C. is doing     D. was doing

 以上两题答案均选B,其中的does, did均为强调用法。
10.这是强调句型?

  It was lack of money, not of effort, _____ defeated their plan.

  A. which    B. as   C. that    D. what

  此题容易误选A,受横线前逗号的影响,误认为这是一个非限制性定语从句,从而误选了A。其实,此题最佳答案为C,整个句子为It was ... that ...强调句,被强调成分为lack of money, not of effort。由于句中插入not of effort这一结构,干扰了许多同学对it was lack of money that defeated their plan这一强调句的认识和理解。

  11.不要受这个“sir”的影响?

  Would you care to wait here, sir, _____ the manager can see you?

  A. when   B. since C. until   D. While

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