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高中英语重难点词语使用详解
| 文章作者:佚名 | 文章来源:本站整理 | 文章录入:henry982 | 更新时间:2006-10-25 | 字体: |

高中英语难点词语使用解释
一,使用代用词one应注意的问题
英语中one可用作代用词.它代替上文出现的名词词组中心词,以避免重复.使用代用词one时需注意以下几个方面:
1.只能代替可数名词,不能代替不可数名词.eg:
I haven't got a raincoat.I'll have to buy one.
Brown's old car is much better than our new one.
2.复数名词的代用词为ones.eg:
He ate all the big cherries and left me the little ones.
There was a mother bird in the nest and there were four young ones.
3.代用词one的常用关联情况
1)与前面带有冠词的形容词连用.eg:
We are moving from our present house into a smaller one.
Have you any knives I need a sharp one.
I like a strong cup of tea better than a weak one.
I propose in this chapter and in the following one to give an outline of the pioneering work.
2)与形容词性物主代词和形容词连用.eg:
Take off your blue dress and put on your green one.
3)其前有定冠词,其后有后置修饰语(形容词短语或定语从句).eg:
If you can't find your pen, use the one on the table.
Hand me my coat,please.It is the one hanging on the third hook.
Of the two watches, I prefer the one that you showed us first.
4)与this和that连用,其后可接后置修饰语或定语从句.eg:
You sit in that chair,and I'll have this one.
The book I am referring to is that one on the second shelf.
The most valuable ring that l possess is this one I am wearing.
5)其前可用广义序数词,如next,1ast, other,another及疑问代词which等.eg:
Let's finish this exercise so we can go on to the next one.
Some of the answers were correct,but I don't remember which ones.
6)在口语中,代用词one常与形容词最高级连用.eg:
Betty had tens of thousands of Augustus's 1etters. She chose from these thousands the fifteen most damaging ones she could find.
4.代用词one(或ones)的省略
1)句中形容词表示前后对比时,可以省略代用词.eg:
His professional instincts are stronger than his personal (ones).
Local political forces are 1ess concentrated than national(ones).
There are,of course,bad architects as well as good(ones).
Anglo—Saxon should be preferrted to foreign words,and the short word to the long
(one).
2)句中只提到两种可能性时,一般省略代用词.eg:
The new library will be like the o1d(one).
Lean years may be expected to follow the fat(ones).
3)形容词比较级后常省略代用词.eg:
I know this is not quite the right word,but I can't be bothered to think of a better
(one).
There were two tables 1aid…he and Ann were expected to preside at the smaller (one).
4)"不定冠词+原级形容词"后的代用词一般不省略.eg:
Have you any knives I need a sharp one.
5.不使用代用词的场合
1)one不可用来代替不可数名词或集合名词.以下各句中省略的均不是代用词one.eg:
I'd prefer the red wine to the white (wine).
It is cheaper to buy old furniture than to have new (furniture) made.
2)one一般不能与own连用.eg:
I can't write properly with your pen;I'd rather use my own.(不能用my own one)
Mrs Smith is both 1oved and respected in many countries besides her own.(不能用
her own one)
3)one不能置于所有格名词或形容词性物主代词之后.eg:
As my own bicycle was broken,I borrowed John's.(不能用John's one)
Is this my pen,or is it yours (不能用your one)
如需连用,所有格名词或形容词性物主代词与代用词之间必须有一形容词,如John's old one,your new one,my best one等.eg:
You may borrow my o1d pen,if you wish,but I cannot 1end you my best one.
My humble fate is curiously bound up with John's illustrious one.
4)one不能与these和those连用.eg:
I don't care for those flowers;I would rather have these.
These machines are better than those we turned out last year.
5)one不能与基数词连用.eg:
You have three book; I have only two.(不能用two ones)
但在口语中有时可以例外.eg:
There were a 1ot of artistic kinds of people there,and one or two ones from the BBC.
二,"to...to"结构之肯定意义的语域
及其成因研究
"too…to"是英语中常见的,以其肯定形式表示否定意义的结构.但是,并不是所有的"too…to"结构都表示否定意义.在某些情况下,"too…to"结构也表示肯定意义.下面将从"too...to"结构的语义特征分析其肯定意义及其语域和成因.
一,"too...to"结构的肯定意义在"某些特殊副词+too…to"结构语域中的体现及其成因研究:
1.语域研究
"too...to"结构之前带有"but,only,all,simply,just"时,该结构表示强烈的肯定意义,汉译为"非常/十分/实在/真是太……"等.eg:
They are but too glad to do so.他们非常喜欢这么做.
The patient was only too willing to be operated upon.病人非常愿意接受手术.
We are all too satisfied to take your advice.我们非常乐意接受你的建议.
We shall be simply too glad to help you.我们很乐意帮助你.
I am just too glad to help you.能帮你的忙,我真是太高兴了.
2.成因研究
在以上例句中,too前面的"but,only,all,simply,just"等副词只起到了加强语气的作用.因此,用于"too...to"结构前面的这几个副词可以互换,而不定式,to则表示原因,有肯定意义.另外,该用法中的too只表示程度深一些,所以不会对其后的形容词产生否定意义,反而更强调了其肯定意义.
二,"too...to"结构的肯定意义在"否定副词+too...to"结构和"too...+not
to"语域中的体现及其成因研究
1.语域研究
"too...to"结构前也可以加否定副词not或never构成"not/never too…to"和"too...not to"结构.该结构不表示否定,而表示肯定,译为"不太……可以……,决不……能……,非常(很,太,那么)……不会不(必定能,所以能)……".eg:
He is not too weak to carry the bag.他不太弱小;可以背得动那个书包.
The box is not too heavy to lift.这只箱子不太重,可以抬得起来.
It is never too late to mend.亡羊补牢,犹未晚也.
One is never too old to learn.活到老学到老.
He is too careful not to have noticed that.他那么小心,肯定会注意到那一点的.
You are too kind not to help me.你很善良,肯定会帮助我的.
2.成因研究
当too表示"太,过分"意义时,它是一个表示超量的程度副词,对其后所跟的形容词起一种消极作用,含有否定意义,因此就导致了"too…to"结构含有否定意义.但如果在too前加否定词not或never,形成双重否定,则能使原来具有否定意义的"too...to"结构转化为肯定意义.
三,"too…to"结构的肯定意义在"too+特殊形容词+to"结构语域中的体现及其成因研究
1.语域研究
有时可以在too之后加表示某种心情或描绘性的形容词,表示肯定意义.这类形容词有"glad,pleased,happy,satisfied,ready,apt,incline,kind,eager"等.eg:
He is too ready to help others.他十分乐意帮助别人.
He is too inclined to be cheated.他很容易上当受骗.
Beginners are too apt to make mistakes in grammar.初学者极易犯语法错误.
He is too eager to know the result of his experiment.他迫切想知道他所做的实验结果.
It is too kind of you to repair the car for me.你为我修车真是太好了.
He is too p1eased to receive the pretty gift.收到这件漂亮的礼物,他真是太高兴了.
2.成因研究
在以上例句中,表示心情或描绘性的形容词和to引导的不定式结合成一个表示不可分割的状态,态度,心境或倾向,并且具有明显的动词意义或感情色彩.因此,句中的不定式"to..."表示肯定(不表示结果)含义.
可见,在"too...to"结构表示肯定的句型中,too的逻辑意义为…'extremely'(很,十分),强调其后的形容词具有肯定意义;这与"too...to"结构表示否定时,too的含义和作用完全相反.
三,as用法小结
as一词在SEFC新教材中多处出现.它词性多,词义广,用法灵活.现将其用法归纳如下.
一)as作副词,表示程度,意为"同样地".在"as...as...","not as...as..."结构中的第一个as是副词,作"和/与...(不)一样"解.eg:
Jack is as tall as his father.杰克和他的父亲一样高.
He doesn't speak English as/so fluently as you.他的英语说得不如你流利.
二)as作介词.
作"如,像"解.eg:
They got united as one man.他们团结得像一个人一样.
She spoke of me as her dearest friend,她谈起我犹如我是她最亲密的朋友.
2.作"充当,作为"解.eg:
As a writer,he was famous.作为作家,他是很有名的.
English is spoken as the first language by most people in Australia.在澳大利亚,大多数人把英语作为第一语言.
三)as作连词,常用来连接主句和状语从句.
1.引导时间状语从句,作"当...的时候"解,有"随着..."之意,与while意义相近,强调两个动作同时发生;或某事一发生,另一事立即发生.eg:
He shouted aloud as her ran along.他一边往前跑,一边高声地呼喊.
I was startled as he opened the door.他一开门,我吓了一跳.
We get wiser as we get older.随着年龄的增长,我们会变得更聪明.
as作连词,相当于when.eg;
As a little boy (When he was a little boy)he began to learn to play piano.他小时候就开始学弹钢琴.
As a child (When he was a child),he lived in the countryside.他小时候住在农村.
2.引导原因状语从句,作"因为,由于"解,与because的用法相近.eg;
As it was getting very late,we soon turned back.因为很晚了,我们很快就回来了.
I must stop writing now,as I have rather a lot of work to do.我必须停笔了,因为我还有许多工作要做.
3.引导方式状语从句或比较状语从句,作"正如,(如)像"解.例eg:
As in your country,we grow wheat in the north and rice in the south.正如(像)你们国家一样,我们在北方种小麦,在南方种大米.(方式状语从句)
When at Rome,do as Romans do.入乡随俗.(方式状语从句)
They always work as hard as we do.他们工作总是像我们一样努力.(句中第二个as是连词,引导比较状语从句)
此外,在"as…as possible"结构中第二个as也起连词的作用.eg:
Read the story as quickly as possible.(=Read the story as quickly as you can.)尽快地阅读这个故事.
They watered the trees as often as possible.(=They watered the trees as often as they could.)他们尽可能经常给树浇水.
4.引导让步状语从句,作"虽然,尽管"解.这时从句常用倒装语序,即把从句中的表语,状语或动词原形放在as之前.eg;
Strange as it may seem,it is true.尽管这事看上去很奇怪,但却是真的.
Try as he might,Tom could not get out of the difficulties.不管怎样努力,汤姆还是摆脱不了困境.
Child as she is,she knows a lot.她虽然年幼,但却懂得很多东西.(注意;child前不带不定冠词a)
四)as作关系代词.
1.引导限制性定语从句,用在"such...as","the same...as","as...as"等结构中,常译作"像...一样的人(或物)","凡是...的人(或物)".例eg:
He wished to be such a man as Lei Feng was.他曾希望做一个像雷锋那样的人.
My hometown is no longer the same as it was.我的家乡再也不像过去一样了.
As many people as are present will be given a present.所有在场的人都将得到一份礼物.
2.引导非限制性定语从句,用来指代它前面的整个句子(即先行句),意思是"这一点".这个分句可以位于句首,句中或句末.eg:
As is well known,oceans cover more than 70% of the earth.我们知道,海洋占地球面积的百分之七十以上.
This elephant is like a snake,as anybody can see.谁都看得出来,这头大象就像一条蛇.
五)含as的固定词组的用法
1.as soon as作"一…就"解,引导时间状语从句.eg:
As soon as I get to Beijing,I'll write to you.我一到北京,就给你写信.
2.as/so long as作"只要"解,eg;
As/So long as you study hard,you'll make progress.只要你努力,你就会取得进步.
3.as if/though常用来引导方式状语从句,作"好像,仿佛"解.如果从句中讲的是非真实情况,则用虚拟语气.eg:
She loves the child as if/though he were her own.她爱这个孩子如同爱自己的孩子.
They talked as if/though they had been there,他们谈起话来就好像他们真的到过那里似的.
As if/though也可用来引导表语从句,常用在"It appears/looks/seems...+as if/though"句型结构中.eg;
It appears as if/though it is going to clear up.看起来天要晴了.
It seems as if/though he knew nothing about it.他好像对此事一无所知.
4.as to作"关于,至于"解.eg;
There is no doubt as to his honesty.他的诚实是无可置疑的.
5.as much/many as作"多达...","达到...之多"解.eg:
The number of people who lost homes reached as many as 250000.无家可归的人数
达25万之多.
He can earn as much as 5000 dollars a month.他每月能挣5000美元.
6.so/as far as I know作"就我所知"解,在句中作插入语.eg:
As/So far as I know,he will come here next Monday.据我所知,他将于下星期一到这里来.
7.as a result,as a result of表示"由于...的结果".eg:
We follow up the suggestions,and have had satisfying experiences as aresult.由于我们按照建议办事,因此一直得到满意的结果.
She died as a direct result of the accident.她的死是那次事故的直接结果.
8,as well为"也,还"之意.eg:
Come early,and bring your brother as well.早点来,把你的弟弟也带来.
as well as也可以作"和,同"解.当其连接两个并列主语时,谓语动词应与前面的主语在数上保持一致.eg:
My parents as well as my elder sister enjoy music. 比较:My elder sister as well as my parents enjoys music.我父母亲和我姐姐都喜欢音乐.
9.so as to,so...as to若跟动词原形,表示目的或结果.eg:
He studied hard so as to pass the exam.他努力学习以便通过考试.(表示目的)
He was so strong as to carry the heavy box.他很强壮,能搬动这个沉重的箱子.(表示结果)
四,keep,1eave,find,feel和make
在S V O C中的用法
SVOC是一种基本句型.其中S-Subjeet,V-Verb,O-Object,C-Complement.
宾语补语可以是形容词(Adjective),名词(Noun),现在分词(Present participle),过去分词(Past participle),介词短语(Prepositional phrase)和副词(Adverb),也可以是动词不定式(Infinitive),或是从句(Clause).SVOC结构在SEFC中运用很广泛,而且动词make,
keep,leave,find和feel在新教材中出现频率很高,也是学习中的难点.下面分别谈谈这些词在SVOC中的用法.
Keep keep在SVOC中的释义是"使某人或某事保持在某一状态".
1.keep+O+Prepositional phrase
I'll keep the box in the shade so that the sun doesn't burn the little plants.我会把这个盒子一直放在阴凉地方,这样太阳就不会把幼苗晒枯.
2.keep+O+Past participle
We'll keep you informed of the flood in the Chang jiang River.我们将随时让你知道长江水灾的情况.
3.keep+O+Adjective
Please keep the room clean all the time.请始终保持房间清洁.
4.keep+O+Present participle
Mother kept me studying during the summer holiday;for I failed my maths exam.
母亲让我暑假一直学习,因为我数学考试不及格.
5.keep+O+Adverb
You must keep this medicine away from the child.这药要放在儿童够不到的地方.
Leave leave在SVOC中的释义是"让某人或某事处于某种状态".
1.1eave+O+Clause
Leave her where she is.让她留在原地.
Don't touch my writing table;leave it as it is.别碰我的写字台,就让它照原样放着.
2.1eave+O+Past participle
Before the final exam,he left nothing undone.在期末考试前,他已做好了一切准备.
3.1eave+O+Adjective
Fear left her lips stiff.恐惧使她张口结舌.
4.1eave+O+Present participle
Don't leave water running to clean vegetables.洗菜时不要开着水龙头让水直淌.
5.1eave+O+Infinitive
Leave the fnture to take care of itself.让未来自然发展吧.
6.Leave+O+Adverb
Someone has left the bathroom tap no.有人忘了关浴室的水龙头.
Find find在SVOC中的释义是"发现,觉得"或者"发现...处于某种状态".
1.find+O+Adjective
...but I find idioms and useful expressions hard to learn.但是我觉得习惯用语和有用的词语很难学.
2.find+O+Noun
I find him a very clever man.我发现他是一个很聪明的人.
3.find+O+Present participle
Dusk found him crying in the street.黄昏时,他在街头叫喊.
4.find+O+Past participle
He found his hometown greatly changed.他发现他的家乡发生了巨大的变化.
5.find+O+Prepositional phrase
They found him already in the care of a doctor.他们发现已经有一位大夫在照顾他了.
6.find+O+Adverb
He hurried there,but found them all out.他赶到那里,但发现大家都出去了.
find在SVOC中的宾语如果是动词不定式或者是动名词,就必须用先行词it表示,然后将真正的宾语置于补语之后.
7.find+it+adj.+doing sth.
We found it useless trying to persuade him to go with us.我们发现劝他和我们一起去是没用的.
8.find+it+adj.+to do sth.
She found it hard to keep a diary in English.她发现用英语每天写日记很难.
Feel feel在SVOC中的释义是"感到,认为",如果其宾语是动词不定式,也必须用先行词it表示,然后将真正的宾语置于补语之后.
1.feel+it+Noun+Infinitive
They feel it their duty to keep the classroom clean.他们认为保持教室干净是他们的职责.
2.feel+O+Past participle
He felt himself forced to take the action.他感到自己是被迫采取这个行动.
3.feel+O+Bare infinitive (不带to的动词不定式)
While I was cooking something in the kitchen I felt the floor move.我在厨房煮饭的时候,感到地板在动.
4.feel+O+Present participle
I felt my heart beating faster when I entered the lonely house.当我走进这幢孤零零
的房子时,我感到我的心跳加快.
5.feel+O+Adjective
We feel the idea quite impractical.我们觉得这个想法很不实际.
6.feel+O+Noun
Mike felt himself a person of importance.迈克觉得自己是一个重要人物.
Make Make在SVOC中的释义是"使得某人或某物怎么样".
1.make+O+Adjective
We must make the buying of tickets easier for our passengers.我们一定要让旅客们更容易买到机票.
2.make+O+Noun
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.只用功不玩耍,弄得孩子会变傻.
3.make+O+Bare innnitive
Man must make the earth support more people.人类必须使地球养活更多的人.
4.make+O(oneself)+Past participle
If Dr.Baker is in the hall,will he please make himself known to me 如果贝克博士在场的话,请自我介绍一下好吗
Exercise:
Fill in the blanks with feel, find, make, leave, keep using the proper form.
1. It's dangerous for you the horse running too fast.
2. He it an honor to be invited to the party.
3. The death of the president __ the country sad.
4. His English is so poor that he can't __ himself understood.
5. At the time of the earthquake, you __ the ground shaking or moving.
6. You'd better all the windows open.
7. If the government _ _ the factory polluting the river, there would be no fish here.
8. He returned home __ his father lying sick in bed.
9. They _ _ him the right man for the job.
10. The weather us indoors that day.
五,英语中"许多"概念的表述
英语中"许多"概念的表达方法很多,用起来较灵活.本文对其用法分类浅析如下.
一,修饰可数名词.表示"许多"的词和词组有:many,a great/good many,a great/large/small number of,scores of,dozens of.eg:
There are many people in the park.公园里有许多人.
I'm quite busy;I have a great many things to do.我非常忙,我有很多事情要做.
A number of my friends think I should take a holiday.我的许多朋友都认为我应该休假.
There were a large number of patients outside waiting to see the doctors.外面有很多
人等着看病.
Up to now only a small number of schools have been built in this area.到目前为止,这个地区仅仅建了少数几个学校.
She bought dozens of eggs yesterday morning.她昨天上午买了许多鸡蛋.
I have heard that scores of times.那件事我已听过很多遍了.
注意:1.many用作代词,表示"许多人,许多"的意思.
Many of them have left for the countryside.他们中有许多人到农村去了.
2.Many a/an也表示"很多的,许多的"的意思,后接可数名词单数,谓语动词用单数形式.
Many a young man wants to speak English.许多年轻人想说英语.
3.a great/good many用作代词,表示"很多东西/人"的意思.
A great many of them are out of work.他们中的很多人失业了.
4.the number of...表示"...的数目"'谓语动词用单数形式.
The number of books missing from the school library is large.学校图书馆丢失书的数目很大.
二,修饰不可数名词.表示"许多"的词和词组有:much,a great/good deal of,a large/small amount of.
"Do you have much money with you ""No,I never carry much money with me.""你身上带了很多钱吗 ""不,我身上从来不多带钱."
There is a great deal of snow on the ground.地面上有很多雪.
I have spent a good deal of time/money on stamp collecting.我在集邮上花费了很多时间/钱.
A million dollars is a large amount of money to me.100万美元对我来说是一笔巨款.
There is only a small amount of food.只有一点食物.
注意:1.much用作代词,表示"许多,大量"的意思.
I couldn't write much into day's exam.在今天的考试中我没答出多少.
2.a great/good deal用作代词,表示"很多,大量"的意思.
He ate a great deal.他吃了很多.
3.a great/good deal用作副词,作状语,修饰形容词,特别是形容词比较级,意思是"非常,...得多";也可修饰动词,意思是"很多".
He ran a good deal faster than I.他跑得比我快得多.
"Do you walk much ""Yes,a good deal.""你常步行吗 ""是的,次数很多."
We see each other a great deal.我们多次见面.
4.the amount of...作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式.
The amount of money spent on the bridge was large.这座桥耗资巨大.
5.1arge amounts of...作主语时,谓语动词要用复数形式.
Large amounts of money were spent on the bridge.建这座桥花费了大量资金.
(比较:A large amount of money was spent on the bridge.)
三,修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数名词.表示"许多"的词组有;a lot of,lots of,plenty of,a great/1arge/small quantity of,great/large quantities of.
A lot of/Lots of people went swimming yesterday.昨天很多人去游泳.
A lot of/Lots of work is to be done this week.本周将有许多工作要做.
We have plenty of cakes.Take some more.我们有很多蛋糕,多吃些吧!
Don't hurry.There is plenty of time.不用急,还有充足的时间.
We need a large quantity of 'food for the winter.我们需要大量的食物过冬.
There are large quantities of tractors in the farm.农场里有许多拖拉机.
注意:1.a lot用作名词,表示"很多,多数"的意思.
He knew a lot about it. 关于那件事他知道得很多.
I have a lot/lots to do to day.我今天有很多工作/事要做.
2.a lot用作副词,修饰形容词和动词,表示"非常,相当"的意思.
He is feeling a lot better today.他今天感觉好多了.
I have made a lot more mistakes than you have.我比你犯的错误多多了.
I like him quite a lot.我非常喜欢他.
She laughed a lot.她笑得很厉害.
3,plenty of只用于肯定句,在疑问句或否定句中一般用enough表示"足够".
Do you have enough time 你的时间够用吗
They don't have enough time.他们没有足够的时间.
4,a large(great,small)quantity of后面跟不可数名词,亦可跟可数名词的复数.跟不可数名词时,谓语动词要用单数形式;跟可数名词的复数时,谓语动词要用复数形式.
A small quantity of water is needed.需要少量的水.
There are a large quantity of flowers in the garden.庭园里有很多花.
5.great/large quantities of无论跟不可数名词,还是跟可数名词的复数,谓语动词都要用复数形式.
Large quantities of food were on the table.桌子上有很多食物.
Great quantities of new books were sold out in a few days.大量的新书几天之内就卖完了.
六,almost和nearly的用法比较
almost和nearly都是英语口语和书面语最常用的词.在学习过程中,许多学生对这两个词的用法并不十分清楚.他们常常把两个词当作绝对的同义词来使用,写出了"Nearly no one came to the party."这样的错误句子.下面将从句法,语义和语用等方面介绍这两个词在用法上的异同.
一,almost和nearly在句法和语义上的相同点:
1.almost和nearly都可用于表示度量,计数和时间的名词词组前面.eg:
It is almost/nearly ten o'clock.
There were almost/nearly a thousand people there.
注意:almost和nearly与表示时间的名词短语使用时只用在系动词BE的后面.eg我们不能说:They arrived at almost/nearly five o'clock.而应说:It was almost/nearly five o'clock when they arrived.
2.almost和nearly修饰动词时往往表示进度,进程或结果等意义.eg:
I've almost/nearly finished. I almost/nearly smashed the phone in fury.
注意:1)almost和nearly修饰动词时一般置于动词之前.如果句中只有一个助动词,两词都应置于助动词之后;如果有一个以上的助动词,则两词都应置于第一个助动词之后.eg:
Fanny almost/nearly fainted. He has almost/nearly forgotten the time.
I've almost/nearly been drowned in it three times.
2)almost和nearly都可以用在否定动词的前面.eg:
I almost/nearly didn't get up in time.
3.almost和nearly都可以修饰表示绝对意义的形容词.eg:
我们可以说"almost,/nearly perfect/frozen/dead/impossible",但一般不与表示非绝对意义的形容词连用.eg;
我们不说:①The schools are almost/nearly good there.
②The coast was almost/nearly rocky.
以上两例应改为:①The schools are extremely good there.②The coast was very rocky.
4.almost和nearly都可以用在某些时间状语和地点状语的前面.eg:
I used to ride almost/nearly every day/evening.We are almost/nearly there/home.
5.almost和nearly都可以用在限定词"all,every,everybody"等之前.eg:
Almost/nearly al1(of) my friends came to the party.
二,almost和nearly的差异
1.句法上的差异
(1)almost可以用在any及否定词"no, no one, nobody, never, nothing, none, nowhere 等的前面,而nearly则不可以.eg:
There is almost no leadership at all.(不可用nearly)
但是,nearly可以用在否定词not之后,起加强否定陈述的作用,而almost则不可以.eg:
It's not nearly so nice. We don't do nearly enough to help.
(2)almost可以用在以—ly结尾的副词的前面,而nearly则不可以.eg:
She said it almost crossly. Your boss is almost certainly there.
(3)almost可以用在like之前,表示"相似,但不完全相同"或避免说得过于肯定;nearly则不可以.eg:
It made me feel almost like a hostess.
(4)very,so,pretty可以用在nearly前面,却不可用在almost前面.eg:
We were very nearly at the end Of our journey.
...the American who so nearly won the Open Championship in 1970.
I've pretty nearly finished.
2.语义上的细微差异
一般情况下,"It's almost five o'clock."和"It's nearly five o'clock."意思大致相同;但有时almost所表示的意思比nearly更接近一些.试比较:
It's nearly ten o'clock.(=perhaps 9.45) .It's almost ten o'clock.(=perhaps 9.57)
3.语用上的差异
almost是一个"纯"程度副词,而nearly则不然,它同时还传达说话人的某种思想情绪和心理状态.eg:
It's nearly eight kilometers to the ZOO.到动物园还有将近八公里呢.(比设想的要远些)
It cost me nearly twenty pounds.它花了我将近20英镑呢.(比估计的价格高,嫌贵了一些)
4.国别差异
almost多用在美国英语中,而nearly在英国英语中则更为常见.
总之,almost和nearly两词的用法比较复杂,尤其是它们在语义和语用上的细微差异,更须在上下文或语境中细心揣摩才能体会到.
七,略谈kind of,sort of和 type of
一,kind of,sort of和type of是可数名词,kind,sort,type后跟of词组,主要释义是"种,类".它们的复数形式是kinds of,sorts of和types of.它们既可与单,复数可数名词连用,也可与不可数名词搭配.它们的前面可以有限定词,如all,three等;也可以有形容词加以修饰,如delicious sorts of bread等.
关于表示"种类"的kind of,sort of和type 0f,常见的有各种结构形式,其中有些符合语法规则,有些只是习惯用法,有些用于正式用语,有些则用于非正式用语.它们大多数既可与可数名词(单,复数)连用,也可与不可数名词搭配.现以kind of的结构形式为例予以说明:
this kind of book ① this kind of books ②
these kind of book③ these kind of books ④
these kinds of book ⑤ these kinds of books ⑥
all/three kind of books⑦ all/three kinds of books⑧.
以上八种结构形式虽属常见,但人们对其正式与否,规范与否,看法不尽相同
一般来说,①式和其用作主语的句子,如This kind of book is excellent.既符合语法规则又是规范语言,正式与非正式场合都可使用,而且是较常用的一种结构.类似的句子还有:
This kind of thing can't go on.
This sort..of thing is not much in my way.
This type of wine is only made in France.
②式是为了表达多数而使用的复数结构.句子看似正确,但很不普通.特别要注意this kind/sort of词组用作主语时,无论of后面的名词是单数还是复数,其谓语动词只能用单数形式而不能用复数形式,因为从语法意义来讲, kind/sort of是单数.例如:
This kind of book/books is excellent.
This sort of man/men is dangerous.
That type of problem/problems is not included in the present treatise.
若一定要用谓语动词的复数形式,或为了符合语法规则,使其成为规范的句子则应改为:
Books of this kind are excellent.⑨ Men of this sort are dangerous. Problems of this type are not included in the present treatise.
尽管许多英美人士都使用③式和④式,尤其是④式,但不少人认为这一结构违背逻辑,不是规范和正确的语言.因此,他们宁可用⑨式来代替④式表示其复数概念.例如:
Do you smoke these kind of cigarettes ④--Do you smoke cigarettes of this kind ⑨
注意:若these/those kind/sort of用作主语时,不论其后面所跟的名词是单数还是复数,其谓语动词应是复数形式.例如:
These type of machine/machines are up to date.
Those sort of car/cars have their use.
These kind of rose/roses are sold here.
以上这三句表示复数,但为便于理解,人们常用⑨式来代替.例如:
Machines of this type are up—to—date.
Cars of that sort have their use. Roses of this kind are sold here.
⑤式和⑥式也都正确,从表面看似乎⑥式最符合语法规则,两个名词都用复数(kinds, books);但更多的人使用⑤式,因为讲的是种类多.
注意:⑤式和⑥式用作主语时其谓语动词都是复数形式.例如:
These kinds of apple(s) are sold every where in China.
Some new types of bus(es) are wonderful.
⑦和⑧式与⑤和⑧式基本相同,只不过⑦⑧两式使用了a11和three来限定kind.⑦式与⑧式相比,⑧式更符合语法规则和用法习惯.尽管有人认为⑦式不规范,但使用者也不少.例如:
He knows all sort of people.
We can't approve of a11 kind of things.
The challenger has got himself into all type of difficulties.
all.kind(s)of作主语时,其谓语动词都使用复数形式.例如:
All kind(s)of difficulties have to be over— Come.
二,kind of,sort of除表示"种类"的意义外,还另有一种意义,即表示在某种程度上"有点儿","有些","稍微"的意思.它们可以位于名词,形容词或动词之前用作状语表示程度.不过这种用法是美国英语,多用于非正式语体中.例如:
I've got sort of pain in my left foot.我左脚有点儿痛.(n.)
I sort of thought you might forget.我有点儿认为你可能忘了.(v.)
Her eyes are kind of greenish-gold.她的眼睛有点儿金黄色带绿.(adj.)
The teacher sort of frowned but then smiled.老师微微皱了一下眉头,但一会又笑了.(v.)
I kind of expected to get it.我有些期望得到它.(v.)
She kind of hoped to be invited.她有些希望被邀请.(v.)
八,连词and的意义
连词and主要是用来连接词语和句子等,常表示并列关系,其含义为"和,与,及,同,又,并,兼"等.此外,and还有如下一些常见的用法:
1."nice/good/rare+and"相当于一个程度副词,其含义为"很,非常,挺".如: The room is nice and warm.这房间挺暖和.
We got a good supper,and grew rare and sleepy.我们美美地吃了一顿晚饭,然后开始昏昏欲睡了.
He drove good and fast.他开车开得非常快.
2."一个词+and+相同的一个词"表示"重复,连续,各种各样"之意.如:
The meeting lasted hours and hours.会议持续了好几个小时.
He has lived in Macao for years and years.他住在澳门多年了.
The train came nearer and nearer.火车越驶越近了.
He coughed and coughed.他咳个不停.
There is tea and tea.茶有这种和那种之分.
3."…and…and…"强调and后的每一个重叠词.如:
He walked on and on and on.他向前走呀,走呀,走个不停. '
4."not…and+否定词语"表示强调肯定.如:
He cannot hear the news and not be surprised.他听到这消息.不能不感到吃惊.
5.and用于一些省略结构中,起加强语气作用,具有"而且"之意.如:
There have to be some decisions made.and soon.我们必须作出一些决定,而且要及早作出.
6.and连接食品名称时,可表示某一合成食品的名称.如:
ham and eggs火腿蛋 rice and egg蛋炒饭
bread and butter面包夹(涂上)黄油 a roll and cheese奶酪面包卷
在日常阅读中,and还可表示如下关系:
1.表示让步关系
It was very hot and they were working in the fields.虽然天气很热,但他们仍然在地里干活.
He has studied English for six years and he can't write a letter in English.虽然他已学了六年英语,但他却不会用英语写信.
2.表示目的关系,用于"come/go/run/stop/write + and+动词原形"结构中.如:
Come and sit by me.来坐在我旁边.
Will you go and post a letter for me 你能去给我寄封信吗
Run and tell her about it.快去把这件事告诉她.
He stopped and spoke to me.他停下来和我讲话.
Try and eat a little.尽量吃一点吧.
1 wrote and asked him when to come here.我写信问他什么时候到这儿来.
3."lie/sit/stand + and + 动词原形"表示伴随情况,相当于现在分词作伴随状语.如:
He lay and talked(=lay talking)with me.他躺着和我谈话.
He sat and read(=sat reading)a novel.他坐着看小说.
She stood and watched (=stood watching)TV.她站着看电视.
4.表示因果关系
He studied very hard and he passed the exam.他学习很努力,所以他通过了考试.
Without the proper software,your computer is a heavy paperweight and computer software is very important.没有适当的软件,你的计算机只不过是一个笨重的压纸器,所以计算机软件是很重要的.
A multimeter can be applied to measure current,resistance and voltage.And this is why it is called a multimeter.万用电表可用来测量电流,电阻和电压,因此被称为万用电表.
5.表示条件与结果关系
Work hard and you'11 complete the task by the end of this month.如果好好干,你就可以在月底前完成任务.
Start acting like a hero and I'll hit you.要是你耍威风,我就揍你.
6.表示原因关系
Nothing grows in her garden and(=because)it never gets any sun.她的园子里什么也不长,因为没有阳光.
7.表示先后顺序关系
He finished writing the article and(1;hen)he watched TV.他写完文章之后就看电视了.
Bridges said hello to Jody and told her what had happened and read The Times.布里奇斯向乔代问了声好,给她讲了发生的情况,然后就阅读《泰晤士报》了.
8.表示对比关系
He is very fat and his brother is very thin.他很胖,可是他的兄弟却很瘦.
九,rather than,prefer与would rather
在英语中,表示"偏爱","优先","更喜欢","更可取"或"宁愿"等意思时,可用prefer,would rather和rather than来表达.现将它们的结构和用法简述如下:
—)rather than
rather than必须连接两个平行结构,即并联两个词(如名词,代词),两个动词不定式或并联两个短语或分句.例如:
John ought to go rather than Mary.约翰比玛丽更应该去.
It ought to be you rather than me that sign the letter.签发这封信的人应该是你而不是我.
当rather than并联两爪.动词不定式时,后一个动词不定式一般省略to(在比较正式的文体中也可以保留to).例如:
In China,it is important to invest in education rather than(to)increase personal wages.在中国,优先投资教育比增加个人工资重要.
I want to go there in August rather than in July.我想八月才到那里去,而不愿意七月就动身.
It was what he meant rather than what he said.那是指他话中的意思,而不是他所说的话.
二)prefer
prefer之后用动名词结构表示一般性偏爱,强调一种事实或一件事.例如:
l like swimming,but I prefer sailing.我喜欢游泳,但更喜欢航行.
prefer之后用动词不定式表示格外偏爱,强调单一的动作或行为.例如:
Drive ahead.I prefer to walk.你开车先走吧,我想步行.
当prefer之后带两个动词不定式表示"偏爱…胜过…"时,用rather than连接.Rather than之后可以有两种结构:省略to的动词不定式和动词的一ing形式.例如:
1 would prefer to spend the weekend at home rather than drive out.我宁愿在家度周末,而不愿意开车出门.
I'd prefer to stay at home rather than going to sch001.我宁可呆在家里,而不愿上学.
当prefer之后带两个名词或动名词结构表示"偏爱…胜过…"时,常用介词to连接两个部分,也可以用rather than连接.例如:
I prefer watching TV to reading books.我宁可看电视,也不愿意看书.
She always prefers starting early rather than leaving everything to the last minute.她总是喜欢趁早做事,而不愿把事情拖到最后一分钟.
prefer之后可以用动词不定式作宾语补足语.例如:
I don't prefer people to smoke here.我不喜欢有人在这儿抽烟.
prefer之后带从句时,其用法与would rather带从句的用法相同.例如:
I'd prefer that you did not go there alone.我希望你不要一个人到那里去.
三)would rather
would rather是固定习惯用语,可用于任何人称,其简略形式是 'd rather.would rather之后直接带省略to的动词不定式.例如:
Would you rather stay at home or go out with me 你愿意呆在家里,还是愿意跟我出门
would rather还可以与than连用,构成"would rather+省略to的不定式+than+省略to的不定式"结构.例如:
Tom would rather read than talk.=Tom prefers reading to talking.汤姆喜爱读书胜过与人交谈.
would rather之后带从句时,从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气,即用过去式表示现在或将来的意义,用过去完成式表示过去的意义.例如:
Don't come and see me again today.I'd rather you came tomorrow.今天不要再来看我啦,我希望你明天来.
I'd rather she had repaired her car last night.=I wish she had repaired her car last night.但愿她昨晚就把车修好了.
一般来说.would rather之后跟动词原形表达的意思是"偏爱,宁愿",但如果其后跟动词hope,think,like,enjoy和have等时,would rather则含有"很,非常"的意思.请比较:
I'd rather enjoy reading.我很喜欢读书.
I'm not sure,but I'd rather think SO.我没有十分把握,但认为很可能如此.
I'd rather hope that you could stay here for another day.我非常希望你能在这里多呆一天.

十,浅议等立连接副词
英语中有些副词或短语副词不是修饰句中的某个成份,而是作连词性状语,在句与句之间起衔接作用,通常称其为等立连接副词.这种副词常连接独立分句或并列句等.
一)表示添加性质的等立连接副词
这类副词含有in addition to(况且,再者,此外)的意思,用来对前面谈过的观点作进一步的补充和说明.这类词有besides,further,furthermore,yet,likewise等.例如:
It is too late to go for a walk now,besides,it is beginning to rain.现在出去散步已太晚,况且,天又在下雨.
He said that he had lost the game,and further,that there was no hope of winning it again.他说他在比赛中失败了,又说他没有再赢的希望了.
二)表示因果关系的等立连接副词
这类副词在句中相当于because of或as a result的意思,表示上文是下文的原因.这类词主要有therefore和thus等.例如:
It is raining.therefore.the football match should be put off.天正下雨,因此,足球赛应该推迟.
The surroundings changed much,and thus,we must change our plan.环境变化很大,因此,我们的计划必须随之改变.
三)表示让步意义的等立连接副词
这类副词可分为两类,一种表示"然而,但是"等转折意义,相当于in spite of.此类词有however,still,yet等.例如:
I'd like to go there with you,however,my hands are full.我很想去那儿,可是我太忙了.
Time is up,yet he hash't arrived.时间到了,但是他还没来.
另一类词表示"无论如何","不管怎样"的意义,相当于in any case.此类词有anyhow和anyway等.例如:
Anyway,we should help the weak.无论如何,我们应该帮助弱者.
Everything has been done well anyhow.不管怎样,一切都还是做好了.
四)表示对比意义的等立连接副词
这类副词相当于on.the contrary,on the other hand(相反地,相对地)的意思,用来连接与上文相反意思的内容.此类词有rather than,instead,oppositely等.例如:
Rather than give in,he would like to die.他宁死不屈.
It didn't appear fine,instead,it began to rain.天不仅没有放晴,反倒开始下雨了.
五)表示列举的等立连接副词
这类副词常用于对一系列事项或观点逐一进行陈述.此类词有firstly,secondly,thirdly等.例如:
She is very popular,firstly,because she is beautiful and lovely,secondly,because she is clever and helpful.她很受欢迎,首先因为她美丽可爱,其次因为她既聪明又乐于助人.
六)表示条件的等立连接副词
这类副词相当于一个条件状语从句,在句子中充当事情发生的条件.此类词有otherwise,or else等,其意思是if not(否则).例如:
Hurry up,otherwise you'll miss the first bus.快,不然你会错过第一班汽车.
Let's begin,or else,it will be too late.咱们快开始吧,不然就太晚了.
十,介词with的几种特殊用法
with是一个十分常见的介词,它的用法非常灵活,本文拟就其几种特殊用法作一简介.
一)with可以作"就…来说","对于"和"关于"解.例如:
The problem with looking into space from the earth is that there is a lot of dust in the earth's air.从地球上观察太空,存在的问题是地球的大气中有着大量尘埃.(SBⅡ,L55)
With many of the poor,hunger is a constant problem.饥饿是许多穷人经常面临的问题.
It is the custom with the Chinese.这是中国人的习俗.
二)with可以作"作为…的成员","为…所雇用","在…范围之中"解,此时常与介词in,at,of,for,from,to的意思相当.例如:.
She said that she had pretended to be a mail in order tO get a job with the company,which did not employ women.她说她女扮男装,为的是能在这家不招女工的公司找份活干.(SB I,L76)
1 hear he's with a motor company now.我听说他现在在一家汽车公司工作.
She has been with the factory about 2 0 years,hasn't she 她在厂里工作了大约20年,是不是
Then he joined the army and served with the Medical Staff Corps in South Africa.以后他参了军,在南非的医疗队服役.
三)with表示原因,作"因为,由于"解.例如:
With space satellites there are no such problems.由于有了太空卫星,这类问题就不存在了.(SBⅡ,L55)
With fewer bison.grass shoots are not eaten,SO grass didn't grow as strongly.由于野牛少了,嫩草没有牛来吃了,草就长得不壮.(SB III,L50)
They will be able to find answers to any problems themselves,with your support.因为有你的支持,无论什么问题他们自已都能解决.(SB Ⅲ,L58)
She is in hospital with a serious illness.她患重病住院了.
With such players,their team is sure to win.有这样的队员,他们队一定会赢.
四)with可以作"在身边","随身带着"解,此时可以与about换用,后接人称代词.例如:
Bring your passport with you and lots of money.带上你的护照,还要多带点钱.(SB Ⅲ,I,38)
I always carry matches with me at such times and…在这种时候,我总是随身带着火柴…(SB Ⅲ,L89)
五)with可以作"尽管,虽然"解.例如:
With all the difficulties they completed the project on time.尽管困难重重,他们仍按时完成了这一工程.
with all his money he is unhappy.虽然他很有钱,但是他并不幸福.

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