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2006年高考英语书面表达题技巧突破指南(四)
| 文章作者:黎桂华 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2006-3-16 | 字体: |

(五)平时学生书面表达中常见的错误类型及应对策略

⒈常见错误:

⑴格式错误

有的考生不能正确地运用书信或日记的格式。A)书信常有五部分:①信头:右上角写上收信人的地址和写信日期; ②称谓; ③正文; ④结束语, 常用的有Yours sincerely/Yours truly/Yours faithfully…; ⑤签名。B)日记格式:顶格写上月、日、年和星期,右边写上天气情况。

⑵词序错误
①并列的人称代词做主语时,I没有放在最后。例如:I, you and he are all League members.
②没弄清英语中真正的主语。例如:Without a friend will feel lonely.
③修饰语错位。例如:He very likes dancing.
⑶时态错误

动词时态的错误是高考英语书面表达中最常见的错误之一,也是考生运用语言的能力差的显著标志之一。如2002关于公园收不收门票的讨论的介绍,陈述讨论的语句通常用一般现在时:Sixty of the students of our school think it is unnecessary to charge an entrance fee. They think that……不少考生表达为Some people thought that……

⑷句子不完整

在口语中,交际双方可借助手势、语气等来理解不完整的句子,可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,又想加些补充说明时发生.例如: There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .应改为:There are many ways to know society, for example, by TV ,radio ,and newspaper.

⑸内容表达错误

这种错误一般说来是审题不清所致。如2003年的书面表达,正确内容是:I've found a flat for you. It's a small one of 25 square meters with a bedroom, a bathroom and a kitchen. The house is near No 11 bus stop on Fang Cao Street and the school is at the next stop.有不少考生表达为:“I've found a flat of 25 square kilometers. It's in No.11 Fang Cao Street.”

⑹句子与句子之间缺少衔接造成意思过渡不平稳

例如:把He worked hard. He failed the exam.改为He worked hard. However, he failed the exam.就比较好。

⑺习惯用语使用错误

如:将 to my surprise 表达为 to my surprised;将in my spare time 表达成 at my spare time; 将He didn’t lose heart though he failed.表达为He didn’t lose his heart though he failed.

⑻没有利用恰当的代词,给人于重复的感觉

例如:把My father is a worker. My father works in a big company. 改为My father is a worker. He works in a big company. 就比较好。

⑼单词运用错误

写作中常见考生因分不清单词的词性而产生错误。大致有:

a.将vi.用成vt.如:come the city/return the place

b.将adj.用成vt.如:Please present on time. Don't absent!

c.将u.n.用成c.n.如:a good news/many informations

d.将adj./adv.使用错误.如:in the recently years/study hardly;

e.将prep.用成v.如:Many overpasses arounded the city.   The road throughed the city.

f.将名词的单/复数使用不当。如:There are lots of high building. // Most of the people have private car.  句中building应改为buildings;句中car应改为cars。

g.句子的主谓不一致:如:A large number of beautiful buildings has been built.  句中has应改正为have。

h.常用词拼写错误:如:beautiful写成beautful; believe写成belive; money写成moneny…

i.在叙事文中通常会运用一般过去时态,所以就出现了动词的过去式,尤其是不规则动词的过去式的拼写错误很普遍的现象。如:visitted/ hurted/ writed/…..

j.不定冠词的使用错误:如:send a e-mail to you(an)/ Even a overpass has been built…(an)/ He graduated from an university.(a)

k.虚词错误:①冠词的漏用和误用, 如:My father is worker.  ②缺必要的连结词或连结词多余, 如:He likes swimming, I like climbing.
  ⑽不间断句子,即几个句子连在一起,看起来似乎是一个句子

例如:There are many ways we get to know the outside world.应改为:There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world.或 There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world.

⒉应对策略:

我们知道,英语书面表达是对英语语言知识的积极运用。它包括两大方面:一是内容,即写什么;二是表述,即如何用语言把内容表述出来。为了避免所存在的问题并提高英语书面表达能力,宜从以下几方面去努力。

⑴强化英语基本句型。句子是文章的基本框架,在文章中起着桥梁的作用。对学生来说,英语书面表达最基础的还是选词造句,使句子正确通顺,符合英语表达习惯。

⑵分析并诵读课文。课文是句型的延伸与扩展,分析课文的选词造句、连接手段、篇章结构等,并有意识地诵读课文,这有利于学生对基本句型的巩固与运用,有利于他们提高语言组织能力以及写作素材的积累和语感的形成。

⑶加强听说训练。听力与口语训练能促进学生用英语进行思维,为学生写出地道的英语打下坚实的思维基础。

⑷参加英语兴趣小组活动。英语兴趣小组能为学生提供运用英语的机会,丰富写作素材,从中也可以培养对英语的兴趣,而兴趣是学习的最好的老师,它能帮助你学好英语,当然也包括书面表达。

⑸坚持用英语写日记。把自己当天的所见所闻、所感所悟用英语记下来,坚持不懈,这样熟能生巧,必有利于英语书面表达的提高。

㈥如何提高书面表达的档次,争取得高分甚至满分?

不少同学们可能很不理解:考试时,写出的书面表达要点齐全,表达也正确,可就是不知道为什么打不上高分。是啊,为什么呢?今天,我们就来研究如何解决这个问题。

首先让我们来看近年来全国高考英语书面表达的评分标准:第五档(很好):“覆盖所有主要内容;应用了较多的语法结构和词汇;语法结构或词汇方面有些许错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇所致;应用简单的语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑;达到了预期的写作目的。”

可见,高考书面表达评分标准在语言的运用上对考生提出了更高的要求。也就是说在考查考生语言准确性的基础上,进一步强调了用词的得体性、表达方式的多样性。如果同学们仅运用基础的词汇和基本的句型,不能体现出较强的语言运用能力,即使要点齐全,表达没有语法错误,也不能给人一种含金量高的审美享受,因此很难在考试的评分中得到较高档次。评分标准给我们传递了另外一个信息,如果有意识地使用较高级词汇或复杂结构,即使有些错误,也不扣分,仍属于最高档次。

因此要使一个平淡的文章变得丰富起来,从而提高书面表达的档次。我认为同学们应着力于从以下三个方面来增强书面表达的效果。

⒈学会使用较高级的词汇

词汇反映你知识贮存量的多少,也是衡量英语水平的一个重要标志。从评分标准可知,运用高级的词汇对提高书面表达的分数至关重要。大家先来看下面这些句子:

⑴Because the weather was good, our journey was comfortable.

Thanks to the good weather, our journey was comfortable.

⑵We all think he is a great man.

think highly of him.

⑶Suddenly I thought out a good idea.  …came upon …

A good idea occurred to me. /A good idea suddenly struck me.

⑷The students there needn’t pay for their books.

Books are free for the students there.

⑸As a result the plan was a failure.

The plan turned out (to be) a failure.

⑹When she heard he had died, she went pale with sorrow.

At the news of his death, she went pale with sorrow.

⑺She went to Austria in order to study music.

She went to Austria for/with the purpose of studying music.

⑻When he spoke, he felt more and more excited.

The more he spoke, the more excited he felt.

⑼In our school, there are twenty–six classrooms.

Our school is made up of twenty–six classrooms./Twenty–six classrooms make up our school.

⑽You can find my house easily.

You’ll have no trouble/difficulty finding my house.

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