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2006年高考英语书面表达题技巧突破指南(五)
| 文章作者:黎桂华 | 文章来源:网络 | 文章录入:henry | 更新时间:2006-3-16 | 字体: |

⒉学会使用较丰富的句式

在整篇文章中,避免只使用一两个句型,要灵活运用各种语法结构,运用得当的句子结构可以给文章增色不少,从而使整篇文章因此而生辉。例如:

⑴When he arrives, please give me an e-mail.(使用V-ing形式)

→On his arriving/ arrival, please give me an e-mail.

⑵To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.(使用名词性从句)

→What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.

(That the littler girl knows so many things surprises him./It surprises him that the littler girl knows so many things .)

⑶Though I’m weak, I’ll make the effort. (使用倒装句)

→Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort.

⑷He did not know what had happened until he had read the news in the newspaper.(使用强调句型   ①.It was… ②.not until…)

→①It was not until he had read the news in the newspaper that he knew what had happened.

→②Not until he had read the news in the newspaper did he know what had happened.

⑸I passed the physics exam because of your help.(使用虚拟语气)

→①I could not have passed the physics exam but for your help.

→②If you had not helped me, I could not have passed the physics exam.

⑹She walked out of the lab and many students followed her. (用过去分词)

→Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab.

⑺They sang and laughed as they went back to school.( 使用V-ing形式)

→Singing and laughing, they went back to school.

⑻I won’t believe what he says. (使用状语从句)

→No matter what he says, I won’t believe.

⑼If you study hard, you will make rapid progress. (使用并列句)

→Study hard and you’ll make rapid progress.

⑽He had no sooner come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad. (使用倒装句)

→No sooner had he come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad.

⒊学会使用恰当的连接词

使用恰当连接词,对写出一篇有“英语味”的文章很重要,能使整篇文章上下衔接自然、紧凑,使文章有一定的流畅性,以使文章层次清晰,行文连贯。下面表格中是写作中经常用到的一些连接词。

逻辑角度
 合适的过渡性词汇
 
时间顺序
 first, second, then, finally/at last, immediately, suddenly , soon
 
空间顺序
 here, there, on one side…on the other side, in front of, at the back of, next to
 
对称顺序
 for one thing, for another thing, on one hand, on the other hand
 
转折顺序
 but, however, while, though, otherwise
 
因果顺序
 because, since, as, thanks to, as a result (of)
 
条件顺序
 as long as, so long as, on condition that, if, unless
 
让步顺序
 though, as, even if/though, whether, who(what, when, where)-ever
 
递进顺序
 what’s more, besides, to make the matter worse, what’s worse
 
过渡性插入语
 I think, I’m afraid, you know, As we all know
 

例如:

①On one side of the road there is a new classroom building. On the other side, where the playground used to be now stands another new building—our library. (NMET99范文)

②As far as I know, everyone is happy about this new arrangement of things.(NMET01范文)

③What’s more, I can go to bed earlier. (NMET01范文)

运用以上讲解的三点增强书面表达效果的技巧,我们来看下面这样一篇书面表达:

联合国教科文组织某考察团正在我国某乡村参观考察。假定你是接待人员,请根据下列提示以发言稿的形式简要介绍这个村的情况:

1)      大小:近100户人家,约500口人。

2)      变化:过去很穷,78年后变化很大。人们生活比以前好多了。现已旧貌换新颜。

3)                  教育:原来的学校很小,现已经过改建。新建的教学楼有4层,是村里最美的建筑物。村所有学龄儿童在此免费就读。

注意:(1)要点齐全,前后连贯。(2)词数:100-120之间。

[解析]:

⑴依据要点,草拟提纲,将所需要的语言材料准备好。可以只列出主要的词、词组、短语及句型。暂不考虑动词的时态、语态、单数第三人称等词形变化。

①100 families and 500 people/

②used to be very poor/ change a lot/ richer than before/ take on a new look

③was very small/ have been rebuilt

④newly-built/have 4 storeys/ most beautiful building

⑤school-age children/ enjoy free education

⑵扩展成句,连句成篇。本文为一篇发言稿,其格式与口头通知大体相同。因此,短文应有称呼、开场及结束语。既然介绍的是小村,所使用的人称应为it.应注意时态、语态的正确运用,并适当使用一些连接成分将所列的语句连成完整的语篇。全文应结构紧凑,前后连贯。

Ladies and gentlemen,

Welcome to our village! ①This village is very small. It has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor.②It has changed a lot since 1978 ③. People here ④are richer than before. Now it is taking on a new look.

In the past, the school here was very small⑤. ⑥Now it has been rebuilt. ⑦The newly built teaching building⑧has 4 storeys and it is the most beautiful building in the village. All the school-age children can study here.⑨They enjoy free education in it.⑩Thank you.

大家看,这篇书面表达要点齐全,表达也没语法错误,但语言平淡,表达方式单一,逻辑性也差,因此很难在考试的评分中得到较高档次。如果使用一些恰当的连接词,并尽量使用较高级的词汇和较复杂的语法结构,这个平淡的文章就会有很大改观,甚至会变得更精彩。

Ladies and gentlemen,

Welcome to our village! ①This village is a small one with/which has nearly 100 families and about 500 people. It used to be very poor. ②However, it has changed a lot since 1978 ③and has been developing very fast. People here ④have/live a much better life than before . Now it is taking on a new look.

In the past, the school here was very small⑤and most children couldn’t afford to go to school.⑥But now it has been rebuilt⑦and the newly built teaching building ⑧which has 4 storeys is the most beautiful one in the village. All the school-age children can study here. ⑨What’s more/Also, they enjoy free education.

⑩May you enjoy your stay here/May you have a pleasant time here! Thank you.

 

  [对上文评析]:

①用介词短语作定语或用含定语从句的主从复合句。②语句间缺少连接成分However。③表现作者对现在乡村的发展的喜悦心情,也起到承上启下作用。④较高级词汇。⑤作者对过去孩子们上不起学表示遗憾和同情。⑥语句间缺少连接成分,添加But。⑦语句间缺少承上启下连接成分and。⑧用含定语从句的主从复合句。⑨此处应添加一个承接上下文的过渡性词语,如“What’s more/Also”,这样,前后就显得更加连贯了。⑩如能适当发挥,在结尾处添加像“May you enjoy your stay here/May you have a pleasant time here!”的表希望、祝愿的语句,会使全文更加完整,使文章读起来更亲切,完全达到与读者进行交流的目的,从而收到更佳的表达效果。

 ④较高级词汇。

 ①⑧较复杂句式。

②⑥⑦⑨这些连接词的恰当使用无疑能使全文过渡自然,令读者对后续的句子产生心理的期待和准备,增强句子间的逻辑性和紧凑性。

③⑤⑩适当增加句子的感情色彩,增加一些人情味,使文章读起来更亲切,完全达到与读者进行交流的目的。

以上我们可以看出,要使文章连贯、流畅,就要使用较高级词汇、复杂句子结构以及恰当的连接词,才能给人一种美的享受,才能在考试的评分中得到较高的档次。总之,希望同学们通过以上启发,灵活运用,坚持用科学的方法多写多练,就一定能写出高质量的英语作文,在高考中取得成功。

[小练习]:

试试看,下面这篇书面表达又该怎样写才能得高分呢?

请你根据下列表格的内容,阐述一下你对减少城市人口的看法。

建议项
 具体措施
 目 的
 
1
 A. 晚婚

B. 一对夫妇一个孩子
 减少人口自然增长

(人口出生率)
 
2
 严格控制外地人进城务工经商
 减轻外地人口对城市的压力
 
 

3
 A. 在郊区,建造生活、商业、文教、

卫生、娱乐休闲生活小区

B. 在城市的县里建造卫星城
 吸引城市居民到郊区和卫星城工作和生活。
 

A Suggested Version:

Our modern city is too crowded, and to solve the problem, I have three suggestions. First of all, practise the policy of “ Late Marriage ”and “ One Couple, One child ” so as to reduce the birth rate. Secondly, the city government must have a tight control of people entering cities to engage in trade or do various physical jobs in order to reduce the pressure on the city caused by the increasing population. Finally, more and more people suggest that living blocks with shopping centers, school, hospital as well as cinemas and theatres or even satellite towns should be built in the city suburbs or the countries round the cities. In this way city citizens will be encouraged to move there. If these three suggestions are well carried out, the city population will be greatly reduced.

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